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Bloomsbury Scientists

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ISBN: 9781787350045 Year: Pages: 198 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Science (General) --- History --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2017-09-27 11:01:45
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Bloomsbury Scientists is the story of the network of scientists and artists living in a square mile of London before and after the First World War. This inspired group of men and women viewed creativity and freedom as the driving force behind nature, and each strove to understand this in their own inventive way. Their collective energy changed the social mood of the era and brought a new synthesis of knowledge to ideas in science and art. Class barriers were threatened as power shifted from the landed oligarchy to those with talent and the will to make a difference. A time of unexpected opportunities, from the new disciplines of Genetics and Ecology to Post-Impressionism and beyond, Michael Boulter seamlessly weaves together the stories originating from Bloomsbury’s laboratories, libraries and studios. He narrates the breakthroughs of scientists such as Ray Lankester and Marie Stopes alongside the creative outputs of H. G. Wells and Virginia Woolf, among many others, and intricately connects them all through personal friendships, grievances, quarrels and affections. Bloomsbury Scientists offers a fresh and crucial perspective on this history at a time when the complex relationship between science and art continues to be debated.

The making of British bioethics

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ISBN: 9781847798879 Year: Pages: 303 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_502670 Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 081493
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2014-10-16 11:01:07
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Recent decades have witnessed profound shifts in the politics of medicine and the biological sciences. Members of several professions, including philosophers, lawyers and social scientists, now discuss and help regulate issues that were once left to doctors and scientists, in a form of outside involvement known as ‘bioethics’. The making of British bioethics provides the first in-depth study of the growing demand for this outside involvement in Britain, where bioethicists have become renowned and influential ‘ethics experts’. The book moves beyond existing histories, which often claim that bioethics arose in response to questions surrounding new procedures such as in vitro fertilisation. It shows instead that British bioethics emerged thanks to a dynamic interplay between changing sociopolitical concerns and the aims of specific professional groups and individuals. Highlighting this interplay has important implications for our understanding of how issues such as embryo experiments, animal research and assisted dying became high profile ‘bioethical’ concerns in late twentieth century Britain. And it also helps us appreciate how various individuals and groups intervened in and helped create the demand for bioethics, playing a major role in their transformation into ‘ethics experts’. &#xD;&#xD;The making of British bioethics draws on a wide range of materials, including government archives, popular sources, professional journals, and original interviews with bioethicists and politicians. It is clearly written and will appeal to historians of medicine and science, general historians, bioethicists, and anyone interested in what the emergence of bioethics means for our notions of health, illness and morality.

ПУТИ РАЗВИТИЯ ЗАПАДНОГО ПЕРЕВОДОВЕДЕНИЯ

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ISBN: 9785934394883 Year: Pages: 513 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_577790 Language: Russian
Publisher: R. Valent Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 9
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-12 11:01:11
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The development of translation studies is outlined against the epistemological and intellectual background that characterized the rise of the new discipline and which has to be taken into account if one is to understand the history and the present state of translation studies as a special research field.The monograph offers a detailed and convincing explanation of the ways in which single theories of translation evolved, showing what are the points that they have in common and how they differ from one another in their aims and methods. The theoretical approaches to translation that arose in the German-speaking academic environments (especially H. Vermeer's and K. Reiss's Skopostheorie, J. Holz-Mänttari's Theorie vom translatorischen Handeln and Ch. Nord's approach with »loyalty« as a central cencept) are also presented in comparison to other schools of translation research which developed elsewhere in Europe and beyond.

Real Life Cryptology

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ISBN: 9789462985544 Year: DOI: 10.5117/9789462985544 Language: Undetermined
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:17
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A large number of enciphered documents survived from early modern Hungary. This area was a particularly fertile territory where cryptographic methods proliferated, because a large portion of the population was living in the frontier zone, and participated (or was forced to participate) in the network of the information flow. A quantitative analysis of sixteenth-century to seventeenth-century Hungarian ciphers (300 cipher keys and 1,600 partly or entirely enciphered letters) reveals that besides the dominance of diplomatic use of cryptography, there were many examples of “private” applications too. This book reconstructs the main reasons and goals why historical actors chose to use ciphers in a diplomatic letter, a military order, a diary or a private letter, what they decided to encrypt, and how they perceived the dangers threatening their messages.

Virtuous Waters

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ISBN: 9780520291737 9780520965393 Year: Pages: 226 DOI: 10.1525/luminos.48 Language: English
Publisher: University of California Press
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Anthropology --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-09 11:01:52
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Virtuous Waters is a pathbreaking and innovative study of bathing, drinking and other everyday engagements with a wide range of waters across five centuries in Mexico. Casey Walsh uses political ecology to bring together an analysis of shifting scientific, religious and political understandings of waters and a material history of social formations, environments, and infrastructures. The book shows that while modern concepts and infrastructures have come to dominate both the hydrosphere and the scholarly literature on water, longstanding popular understandings and engagements with these heterogeneous liquids have been reproduced as part of the same process. Attention to these dynamics can help us comprehend and confront the water crisis that is coming to a head in the twenty-first century.

Die Matrikel der Universität Wien, VIII Band 1746/47-1777/78

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ISBN: 9783205794639 Year: Pages: 714 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_454362 Language: Latin|German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 95
Added to DOAB on : 2013-10-01 07:26:05
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Register (matriculation book) of the University of Vienna, 1746/47-1777/78 with university records, chronicles and enrollments.

Kerne, Kooperation und Konkurrenz

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ISBN: 9783205795124 Year: Pages: 378 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_470590 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - P 19557
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-29 09:14:24
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At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, a new sub-field of physics and chemistry emerged centering on radioactivity. Its disciplinary structures were slow to crystallize. The early phase of this field was characterized by substantial international exchange between the European centers in Vienna, Paris, Berlin and Cambridge and a concomitant high degree of transdisciplinarity. Research on radioactivity was also marked by an unusual openness in respect to gender and gender politics. The volatile political and social context of nuclear research, which abruptly changed several times, acted to further, impede or block these initiatives to transcend diverse boundaries in science, politics, and society. The two central questions of the present project are: How did the agendas and foci of Austrian nuclear research, and the styles of work of the scientists, change within the framework of international cooperation and competition? How were these developments dynamically linked with the political, social and cultural shifts in European history in the 20th century? The historical analysis starts with the founding of the Vienna Institute for Radium Research (IRR), including the institutes for physics at the University of Vienna that worked in close cooperation with the IRR. The period under investigation extends from the late years of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire to World War I, the era of "Red Vienna," the "state of estates" (Ständestaat) and the Nazi dictatorship, down to the full restoration of Austrian sovereignty in 1955. The study will include systematic transnational comparisons with the other centers of European nuclear research, based in part on existing literature from the history of science, as well as exact reconstructions of the bilateral and multilateral cooperative links and relations with the international scientific community. In this way, the proposed project is expected to go beyond the historical reconstruction of nuclear research in Austria and shed light on the importance of nationality and internationality, both for framing politics and as mental and cultural points of reference for the behavior and actions of the scientific actors and the production of scientific knowledge under shifting constellations of war and peace, democracy and dictatorship.

Doing Anthropology in Wartime and War Zones

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Histoire ISBN: 9783837614220 9783839414224 Year: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14361/transcript.9783839414224 Language: English
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101944
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-27 11:21:02
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World War I marks a well-known turning point in anthropology, and this volume is the first to examine the variety of forms it took in Europe. Distinct national traditions emerged and institutes were founded, partly due to collaborations with the military. Researchers in the cultural sciences used war zones to gain access to »informants«: prisoner-of-war and refugee camps, occupied territories, even the front lines. Anthropologists tailored their inquiries to aid the war effort, contributed to interpretations of the war as a »struggle« between »races«, and assessed the »warlike« nature of the Balkan region, whose crises were key to the outbreak of the Great War.

Environments of Intelligence

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Book Series: History and Philosophy of Technoscience ISBN: 9781315408101 9781138222328 9780367348717 9781315408095 9781315408071 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9781315408101 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Science (General) --- Philosophy --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:25
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What is the role of the environment, and of the information it provides, in cognition? More specifically, may there be a role for certain artefacts to play in this context? These are questions that motivate "4E" theories of cognition (as being embodied, embedded, extended, enactive). In his take on that family of views, Hajo Greif first defends and refines a concept of information as primarily natural, environmentally embedded in character, which had been eclipsed by information-processing views of cognition. He continues with an inquiry into the cognitive bearing of some artefacts that are sometimes referred to as 'intelligent environments'. Without necessarily having much to do with Artificial Intelligence, such artefacts may ultimately modify our informational environments. With respect to human cognition, the most notable effect of digital computers is not that they might be able, or become able, to think but that they alter the way we perceive, think and act. The Open Access version of this book, available at http://www.tandfebooks.com/doi/view/10.4324/9781315401867, has been made available under a Creative Commons CC-BY licence

Figuren der Urszene

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ISBN: 9783851327069 Year: Pages: 424 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_455991 Language: German
Publisher: Turia und Kant Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 88
Added to DOAB on : 2013-10-11 21:10:25
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In Freudian psychoanalysis the so-called »primal scene« is of a very fragile ontological and epistemological nature. It oscillates between factual event, phylogenetically pre-structured phantasy and construction of the analyst. The book examines Freud's arguments for and against the reality of the primal scene by way of his famous case study »Aus der Geschichte einer infantilen Neurose«. It employs methods from the history of science to address philosophical, epistemological, aesthetic, and political questions. Apart from analyzing Freud’s arguments themselves and their metaphorical vehicles, it examines the first edition of the case study and also takes into account the manuscript in the Library of Congress in Washington. Both sources have been heretofore neglected by Freud scholars.

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