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Exercises with Solutions in Radiation Physics

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ISBN: 9783110442069 9783110433739 Year: Pages: 278 DOI: 10.1515/9783110442069 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-08-11 09:17:28
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The textbook begins with exercises related to radioactive sources and decay schemes. The problems covered include series decay and how to determine the frequency and energy of emitted particles in disintegrations. The next chapter deals with the interaction of ionizing radiation, including the treatment of photons and charged particles. The main focus is on applications based on the knowledge of interaction, to be used in subsequent work and courses. The textbook then examines detectors and measurements, including both counting statistics and properties of pulse detectors. The chapter that follows is dedicated to dosimetry, which is a major subject in medical radiation physics. It covers theoretical applications, such as different equilibrium situations and cavity theories, as well as experimental dosimetry, including ionization chambers and solid state and liquid dosimeters. A shorter chapter deals with radiobiology, where different cell survival models are considered. The last chapter concerns radiation protection and health physics. Both radioecology and radiation shielding calculations are covered. The textbook includes tables to simplify the solutions of the exercises, but the reader is mainly referred to important websites for importing necessary data.

Quarks and Letters. Natural Sciences in Contemporary Literature and Culture

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Book Series: Literatur- und Naturwissenschaften ISSN: 2365-3949 ISBN: 9783110406542 9783110417609 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: vi, 370 DOI: 10.1515/9783110406542 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-05 10:55:25
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Issues and insights from the fields of brain research, quantum mechanics, and evolutionary theory have passed into novels, and physicists and biologists often use rhetorical metaphors to communicate and even evoke their discoveries. The essays in this volume examine natural scientific themes in literary texts – such as the novels of Richard Powers, Can Hue, and Raoul Schrott – and the use of rhetoric and metaphor in the natural sciences.

Physik und Poetik. Produktionsästhetik und Werkgenese. Autorinnen und Autoren im Dialog

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Book Series: Literatur- und Naturwissenschaften ISSN: 2365-3949 ISBN: 9783110440362 9783110417883 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: vi, 314 DOI: 10.1515/9783110440362 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Languages and Literatures --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-05 12:50:34
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Physics and literature are two forms of knowing the world that are both complementary and contingent. Poetical-physical ways of writing and metaphors in physical theories are two sides of a coin. Interviews with Ulrike Draesner, Durs Grünbein, Michael Hampe, Jens Harder, Reinhard Jirgl, Thomas Lehr, Ulrich Woelk, and Juli Zeh enrich our knowledge of these two cultures through voices familiar with both sides.

Obsessed by a Dream

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Book Series: Springer Biographies ISBN: 9783030263386 Year: Pages: 511 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-26338-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:07
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This Open Access biography chronicles the life and achievements of the Norwegian engineer and physicist Rolf Widerøe. Readers who meet him in the pages of this book will wonder why he isn't better known. The first of Widerøe's many pioneering contributions in the field of accelerator physics was the betatron, the second, the linear accelerator, both summarized in a 27 page PhD. The betatron revolutionized the fields of cancer treatment through radiation therapy and also nondestructive testing; hospitals worldwide installed Widerøe's machine and today’s modern radiation treatment equipment is based on his inventions. The most recent renaissance of the linac provides unprecedented x-ray intensities at Free Electron Laser (FEL) facilities in operation and construction worldwide. . Widerøe’s story also includes a fair share of drama, particularly during World War II when both Germans and the Allies vied for his collaboration. Widerøe held leading positions in multinational industry groups and was one of the consultants for building the world's largest nuclear laboratory, CERN, in Switzerland. He gained over 200 patents, received several honorary doctorates and a number of international awards. The author, a professional writer and maker of TV documentaries, has gained access to hitherto restricted archives in several countries, which provided a wealth of new material and insights, in particular in relation to the war years. She tells here a gripping and illuminating story.

Mathematics for the Physical Sciences

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ISBN: 9783110409475 9783110426243 Year: Pages: 446 DOI: 10.2478/9783110409475 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2015-04-13 10:58:46
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The book begins with a thorough introduction to complex analysis, which is then used to understand the properties of ordinary differential equations and their solutions. The latter are obtained in both series and integral representations. Integral transforms are introduced, providing an opportunity to complement complex analysis with techniques that flow from an algebraic approach. This moves naturally into a discussion of eigenvalue and boundary vale problems. A thorough discussion of multi-dimensional boundary value problems then introduces the reader to the fundamental partial differential equations and “special functions” of mathematical physics. Moving to non-homogeneous boundary value problems the reader is presented with an analysis of Green’s functions from both analytical and algebraic points of view. This leads to a concluding chapter on integral equations.

Harmonic Oscillators and Two-by‑two Matrices in Symmetry Problems in Physics

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ISBN: 9783038425007 9783038425014 Year: Pages: X, 360 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-02 11:58:37
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This book consists of the articles published in the special issues of this Symmetry journal based on two-by-two matrices and harmonic oscillators. The book also contains additional articles published by the guest editor in this Symmetry journal. They are of course based on harmonic oscillators and/or two-by-two matrices. The subject of symmetry is based on exactly soluble problems in physics, and the physical theory is not soluble unless it is based on oscillators and/or two-by-two matrices. The authors of those two special issues were aware of this environment when they submitted their articles. This book could therefore serve as an example to illustrate this important aspect of symmetry problems in physics.

Charged Particle Optics Theory

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ISBN: 9781482229950 Year: Pages: 369 DOI: 10.1201/9781315215310 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Mathematics --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-23 00:06:18
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Charged Particle Optics Theory: An Introduction identifies the most important concepts of charged particle optics theory, and derives each mathematically from the first principles of physics. Assuming an advanced undergraduate-level understanding of calculus, this book follows a logical progression, with each concept building upon the preceding one. Beginning with a non-mathematical survey of the optical nature of a charged particle beam, the text: Discusses both geometrical and wave optics, as well as the correspondence between them Describes the two-body scattering problem, which is essential to the interaction of a fast charged particle with matter Introduces electron emission as a practical consequence of quantum mechanics Addresses the Fourier transform and the linear second-order differential equation Includes problems to amplify and fill in the theoretical details, with solutions presented separately Charged Particle Optics Theory: An Introduction makes an ideal textbook as well as a convenient reference on the theoretical origins of the optics of charged particle beams. It is intended to prepare the reader to understand the large body of published research in this mature field, with the end result translated immediately to practical application.

Special Functions: Fractional Calculus and the Pathway for Entropy

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ISBN: 9783038426653 9783038426646 Year: Pages: 304 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 13:53:41
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Historically, the notion of entropy emerged in conceptually very distinct contexts. This book deals with the connection between entropy, probability, and fractional dynamics as they appeared, for example, in solar neutrino astrophysics since the 1970's (Mathai and Rathie 1975, Mathai and Pederzoli 1977, Mathai and Saxena 1978, Mathai, Saxena, and Haubold 2010).The original solar neutrino problem, experimentally and theoretically, was resolved through the discovery of neutrino oscillations and was recently enriched by neutrino entanglement entropy. To reconsider possible new physics of solar neutrinos, diffusion entropy analysis, utilizing Boltzmann entropy, and standard deviation analysis was undertaken with Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino data. This analysis revealed a non-Gaussian signal with harmonic content. The Hurst exponent is different from the scaling exponent of the probability density function and both Hurst exponent and scaling exponent of the Super-Kamiokande data deviate considerably from the value of ½, which indicates that the statistics of the underlying phenomenon is anomalous. Here experiment may provide guidance about the generalization of theory of Boltzmann statistical mechanics. Arguments in the so-called Boltzmann-Planck-Einstein discussion related to Planck's discovery of the black-body radiation law are recapitulated mathematically and statistically and emphasize from this discussion is pursued that a meaningful implementation of the complex ‘entropy-probability-dynamics’ may offer two ways for explaining the results of diffusion entropy analysis and standard deviation analysis. One way is to consider an anomalous diffusion process that needs to use the fractional space-time diffusion equation (Gorenflo and Mainardi) and the other way is to consider a generalized Boltzmann entropy by assuming a power law probability density function. Here new mathematical framework, invented by sheer thought, may provide guidance for the generalization of Boltzmann statistical mechanics. In this book Boltzmann entropy, generalized by Tsallis and Mathai, is considered. The second one contains a varying parameter that is used to construct an entropic pathway covering generalized type-1 beta, type-2 beta, and gamma families of densities. Similarly, pathways for respective distributions and differential equations can be developed. Mathai's entropy is optimized under various conditions reproducing the well-known Boltzmann distribution, Raleigh distribution, and other distributions used in physics. Properties of the entropy measure for the generalized entropy are examined. In this process the role of special functions of mathematical physics, particularly the H-function, is highlighted.

Physics-Based Probabilistic Motion Compensation of Elastically Deformable Objects

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Book Series: Karlsruhe Series on Intelligent Sensor-Actuator-Systems / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Intelligent Sensor-Actuator-Systems Laboratory ISSN: 18673813 ISBN: 9783866448629 Year: Volume: 10 Pages: XIX, 212 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000028591 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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A predictive tracking approach and a novel method for visual motion compensation are introduced, which accurately reconstruct and compensate the deformation of the elastic object, even in the case of complete measurement information loss. The core of the methods involves a probabilistic physical model of the object, from which all other mathematical models are systematically derived. Due to flexible adaptation of the models, the balance between their complexity and their accuracy is achieved.

Modelling the Human Cardiac Fluid Mechanics. 4th ed

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ISBN: 9783866447943 Year: Pages: 98 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000016552 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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With the Karlsruhe Heart Model (KaHMo) we aim to share our vision of integrated computational simulation across multiple disciplines of cardiovascular research, and emphasis yet again the importance of Modelling the Human Cardiac Fluid Mechanics within the framework of the international STICH study. The focus of this work is on integrated cardiovascular fluid mechanics, and the potential benefits to future cardiovascular research and the wider bio-medical community.

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