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Engineering a Safer World

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Book Series: Engineering Systems ISBN: 9780262016629 9780262533690 Year: Pages: 560 Language: English
Publisher: The MIT Press
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:41:31
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A new approach to safety, based on systems thinking, that is more effective, less costly, and easier to use than current techniques.Engineering has experienced a technological revolution, but the basic engineering techniques applied in safety and reliability engineering, created in a simpler, analog world, have changed very little over the years. In this groundbreaking book, Nancy Leveson proposes a new approach to safety—more suited to today's complex, sociotechnical, software-intensive world—based on modern systems thinking and systems theory. Revisiting and updating ideas pioneered by 1950s aerospace engineers in their System Safety concept, and testing her new model extensively on real-world examples, Leveson has created a new approach to safety that is more effective, less expensive, and easier to use than current techniques.Arguing that traditional models of causality are inadequate, Leveson presents a new, extended model of causation (Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes, or STAMP), then shows how the new model can be used to create techniques for system safety engineering, including accident analysis, hazard analysis, system design, safety in operations, and management of safety-critical systems. She applies the new techniques to real-world events including the friendly-fire loss of a U.S. Blackhawk helicopter in the first Gulf War; the Vioxx recall; the U.S. Navy SUBSAFE program; and the bacterial contamination of a public water supply in a Canadian town. Leveson's approach is relevant even beyond safety engineering, offering techniques for “reengineering” any large sociotechnical system to improve safety and manage risk.

Keywords

cybernetics --- safety

Land Use and Food Security in 2050

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9782759228805 9782759228812 9782759228799 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-2880-5 Language: English
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-11 11:21:32
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"After a first foresight study on ‘World food security in 2050’ (Agrimonde), CIRAD and INRA have turned their attention to a new foresight exercise on ‘Land use and food security in 2050’ (Agrimonde-Terra). This new study seeks to highlight levers that could modify ongoing land-use patterns for improved food and nutrition security. Agrimonde-Terra proposes a trend analysis on the global context, climate change, food diets, urban-rural linkages, farm structures, cropping and livestock systems, and explores five scenarios. Three scenarios entitled ‘Metropolization’, ‘Regionalization’ and ‘Households’ are based on current competing trends identified in most world regions. Two scenarios entitled ‘Healthy’ and ‘Communities’ involve potential breaks that could change the entire land use and food security system. The ‘Healthy’ scenario is the only one that makes it possible to achieve sustainable world food and nutrition security in 2050. Nevertheless, current trends in agricultural and food systems in most parts of the world converge towards the ‘Metropolization’ scenario, which is not sustainable in terms of both land use and human health. Therefore, changing the course of ongoing trends in favor of sustainable land uses and healthy food systems will be one of the main challenges of the next decades. It will require systemic transformation, strong and coherent public policies across sectors and scales, and consistent actions from a wide range of actors. This foresight provides a large information base on land uses, food systems and food security and constitutes a tool box to stimulate debates, imagine new policies and innovations. It aims to empower decision makers, stakeholders, non-governmental organizations and researchers to develop a constructive dialogue on the futures of land uses and food security at either world, regional and national levels."

Keywords

Agriculture --- food --- Food Safety

Physical Safety

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Book Series: WRR Publications ISBN: 9789089645135 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_439095 Language: English
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-02-16 13:37:07
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Physical safety is a core task of government. It is neither surprising nor unreasonable for government to be held accountable for hazardous substances, for food safety, for flood protection, for the spread of infectious diseases, or for the risks involved in new technologies. In 2011 the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations asked the Scientific Council for Government Policy (wrr) to investigate the scope for the development of a generic risk policy in relation to physical safety. Do citizens and businesses take sufficient responsibility for physical safety? Could the government assume a smaller role, and what part could the business community play in this? In this report the WRR argues that in order to answer these questions a distinction needs to be made between incidents, damage, risk and uncertainty. In addition, the wrr recommends that the thinking about responsibility for safety should not be placed in the perspective of a failing government, but that the central focus should be on the ambition of good governance. Finally, the wrr suggests that thinking about safety from the perspective of damage offers a useful framework for thinking through and reassessing the distribution of responsibilities. Responsibility for preventing, limiting and dealing with damage can only be assigned in advance, not retrospectively.

Selected Papers from the 5th International Symposium on Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Moulds: Challenges and Perspectives

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038424840 9783038424857 Year: Pages: VIII, 190 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2017-09-11 08:15:42
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The MYTOX association research platform, MYTOX "Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Moulds" was established in 2007 and consists of more than 50 researchers from 12 research laboratories in the Ghent University Association. MYTOX deals with mycotoxin research in a multi-disciplinary way, based on four main themes: (1) mycotoxins; (2) toxigenic fungi; (3) mycotoxins and animal health; and (4) mycotoxins and human health. In this way, MYTOX tackles the mycotoxin issue along the production chain from the field to the end consumer, within the ‘One Health’ concept.We welcomed over 100 scientists, researchers and representatives from industry, government as well as academia at the 5th edition of the MYTOX International Symposium, held in Ghent on May 11, 2016. The program included oral and poster presentations related to fungal-related disease monitoring and mycotoxin production; mycotoxin analysis in food and feed, as well as in animal and human biological samples; prevention on the field; management strategies during food and feed storage and processing.

Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9780815386827 9781351174664 Year: Pages: 3234 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:45:11
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The contributions cover a wide range of methodologies and application areas for safety and reliability that contribute to safe societies in a changing world. These methodologies and applications include: - foundations of risk and reliability assessment and management - mathematical methods in reliability and safety - risk assessment - risk management - system reliability - uncertainty analysis - digitalization and big data - prognostics and system health management - occupational safety - accident and incident modeling - maintenance modeling and applications - simulation for safety and reliability analysis - dynamic risk and barrier management - organizational factors and safety culture - human factors and human reliability - resilience engineering - structural reliability - natural hazards - security - economic analysis in risk management

Precarious Claims: The Promise and Failure of Workplace Protections in the United States

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ISBN: 9780520288782 9780520963603 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.1525/luminos.19 Language: English
Publisher: University of California Press
Subject: Law --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-10 11:01:24
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Precarious Claims tells the human story behind the bureaucratic process of fighting for justice in the U.S. workplace. The global economy has fueled vast concentrations of wealth that have driven a demand for cheap and flexible labor. Workplace violations such as wage theft, unsafe work environments, and discrimination are widespread in low-wage industries such as restaurants, retail, hospitality, and domestic work, where jobs are often held by immigrants and other vulnerable workers. Despite the challenges they face, these workers do seek justice. Why and how do they come forward,and what happens once they do? Based on extensive fieldwork in Northern California, Shannon Gleeson investigates the array of gatekeepers with whom workers must negotiate in the labor standards enforcement bureaucracy and, ultimately, the limited reach of formal legal protections. Gleeson also tracks how workplace injustices—and the arduous process of contesting them—have long-term effects on their everyday lives. Workers sometimes win, but their chances are precarious at best.

Polymer Reactor Modeling, Design and Monitoring

ISBN: 9783038422549 9783038422556 Year: Pages: X, 204 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-19 11:47:52
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Polymers range from synthetic plastics, such as polyacrylates, to natural biopolymers, such as proteins and DNA. The large molecular mass of polymers and our ability to manipulate their compositions and molecular structures have allowed for producing synthetic polymers with attractive properties. new polymers with remarkable characteristics are synthesized. Because of the huge production volume of commodity polymers, a little improvement in the operation of commodity-polymer processes can lead to significant economic gains. On the other hand, a little improvement in the quality of specialty polymers can lead to substantial increase in economic profits.

Hazard or Hardship

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Book Series: An ILR Press Book ISBN: 9780801451898 9780801469244 9780801469237 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Cornell University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101478
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-25 11:01:48
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Today, hazardous work kills 2.3 million people each year and injures millions more. Among the most compelling yet controversial forms of legal protection for workers is the right to refuse unsafe work. The rise of globalization, precarious work, neoliberal politics, attacks on unions, and the idea of individual employment rights have challenged the protection of occupational health and safety for workers worldwide. In Hazard or Hardship, Jeffrey Hilgert presents the protection of refusal rights as a moral and a human rights question.

Smart machines, Remote Sensing, Precision Farming, Processes, Mechatronic, Materials and Policies for Safety and Health Aspects

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783038428657 9783038428664 Year: Pages: VIII, 256 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 13:24:56
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The introduction of "smart machines" for agricultural operations will allow several advantages, such as an increase in their efficiencies, a reduction in environmental impacts and a reduction of work injuries. There are partially- and fully-automatic devices for most aspects of agricultural functions, from seeding and planting to harvesting and postharvesting, from spraying to livestock management, and so onThe objectives of this book are: study of man–machine dialogue systems; analysis on towed or carried machines: forestry chippers, manure spreaders, round balers and others; safety and health management system design and engineering; safety and health monitoring sensors and sensing; data-driven methods for anomaly detection, diagnosis and prognosis; precision farming; mechatronic; automotive and agriculture machinery applications; engineering of hybrid and integrated systems and their efficiency maximization, especially for safety and health purposes, aimed to injuries and accidents reduction, use of remote sensor and mechatronic systems applied in several aspects.

A Machine-Checked, Type-Safe Model of Java Concurrency : Language, Virtual Machine, Memory Model, and Verified Compiler

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ISBN: 9783866448858 Year: Pages: XXI, 412 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000028867 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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The Java programming language provides safety and security guarantees such as type safety and its security architecture. They distinguish it from other mainstream programming languages like C and C++. In this work, we develop a machine-checked model of concurrent Java and the Java memory model and investigate the impact of concurrency on these guarantees. From the formal model, we automatically obtain an executable verified compiler to bytecode and a validated virtual machine.

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