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Simulations in Medicine. Computer-aided diagnostics and therapy

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ISBN: 9783110667219 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.1515/9783110667219 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Medical technology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-08 10:43:21
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This book describes application fields of high tech in diagnostics and therapy allowing individual therapy, interpretation of large data bases in form of neuronal signals, help visualization of organs during surgery, robotic surgery, 3D-printing and 3D-bioprinting, augmented reality. It also covers hospital organization including hybrid surgery rooms and personal data flow.

On the Origin (and Evolution) of Baryonic Galaxy Halos

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ISBN: 9783038427223 9783038427216 Year: Pages: 230 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-16 08:49:06
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This book covers aspects and achievements of the baryonic (star and gas) component of galaxy halos as presented at the successful conference “On the Origin (and Evolution) of Baryonic Galaxy Halos”, held on the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, March 13–17, 2017. It can be regarded as a compendium of the prominent results in this field. The main focus is the latest simulations and observations of galaxy halos. This compendium is recommended to researchers, and advanced students, as it contains peer-reviewed high quality papers that will meet their scientific needs and help to initiate new research directions. Everything described in this book is the result of a truly collective effort from the participants of the Galapagos conference.

Numerical efficiency calibration of in vivo measurement systems : Monte Carlo simulations of in vivo measurement scenarios for the detection of incorporated radionuclides, including validation, analysis of efficiency-sensitive parameters and customized anthropomorphic voxel models

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ISBN: 9783866445093 Year: Pages: X, 237 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000017470 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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Monte Carlo radiation transport codes were used with virtual models of in vivo measurement equipment. Software was coded to handle memory intensive anthropomorphic voxel models for simulation of measurement scenarios. Tools, methods and models have been validated. Various parameters have been investigated for their sensitivity. Methods based on image registration techniques have been developed to transform existing human models to match with an individual test person.

Stabilisation behaviour of cyclically loaded shallow foundations for offshore wind turbines

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ISBN: 9783866444133 Year: Pages: VIII, 132 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000012332 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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This work presents the results of model tests and numerical simulations of shallow foundations subjected to cyclic loads typical of offshore loadings. Main focus is spent on the accumulated rotational and settlement behaviour relevant in particular for fixed installed offshore wind turbines.

Water Resource Variability and Climate Change

ISBN: 9783038422440 9783038422303 Year: Pages: XVI, 378 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-11-04 09:40:08
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Climate change affects global and regional water cycling, as well as surficial and subsurface water availability. These changes have increased the vulnerabilities of ecosystems and of human society. Understanding how climate change has affected water resource variability in the past and how climate change is leading to rapid changes in contemporary systems is of critical importance for sustainable development in different parts of the world. This Special Issue focuses on “Water Resource Variability and Climate Change” and aims to present a collection of articles addressing various aspects of water resource variability as well as how such variabilities are affected by changing climates. Potential topics include the reconstruction of historic moisture fluctuations, based on various proxies (such as tree rings, sediment cores, and landform features), the empirical monitoring of water variability based on field survey and remote sensing techniques, and the projection of future water cycling using numerical model simulations.

Drop, Bubble and Particle Dynamics in Complex Fluids

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ISBN: 9783039282968 9783039282975 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-297-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The presence of drops, bubbles, and particles affects the behavior and response of complex multiphase fluids. In many applications, these complex fluids have more than one non-Newtonian component, e.g., polymer melts, liquid crystals, and blood plasma. In fact, most fluids exhibit non-Newtonian behaviors, such as yield stress, viscoelastity, viscoplasticity, shear thinning, or shear thickening, under certain flow conditions. Even in the complex fluids composed of Newtonian components, the coupling between different components and the evolution of internal boundaries often lead to a complex rheology. Thus the dynamics of drops, bubbles, and particles in both Newtonian fluids and non-Newtonian fluids are crucial to the understanding of the macroscopic behavior of complex fluids. This Special Issue aims to gather a wide variety of papers that focus on drop, bubble and particle dynamics in complex fluids. Potential topics include, but are not limited to, drop deformation, rising drops, pair-wise drop interactions, drop migration in channel flows, and the interaction of particles with flow systems such as pastes and slurries, glasses, suspensions, and emulsions. We emphasize numerical simulations, but also welcome experimental and theoretical contributions.

Second Generation General System Theory: Perspectives in Philosophy and Approaches in Complex Systems

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ISBN: 9783038424413 9783038424406 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-29 11:01:38
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Following the classical work of Norbert Wiener, Ross Ashby, Ludwig von Bertalanffy and many others, the concept of System has been elaborated in different disciplinary fields, allowing interdisciplinary approaches in areas such as Physics, Biology, Chemistry, Cognitive Science, Economics, Engineering, Social Sciences, Mathematics, Medicine, Artificial Intelligence, and Philosophy. The new challenge of Complexity and Emergence has made the concept of System even more relevant to the study of problems with high contextuality. This Special Issue focuses on the nature of new problems arising from the study and modelling of complexity, their eventual common aspects, properties and approaches—already partially considered by different disciplines—as well as focusing on new, possibly unitary, theoretical frameworks. This Special Issue aims to introduce fresh impetus into systems research when the possible detection and correction of mistakes require the development of new knowledge. This book contains contributions presenting new approaches and results, problems and proposals. The context is an interdisciplinary framework dealing, in order, with electronic engineering problems; the problem of the observer; transdisciplinarity; problems of organised complexity; theoretical incompleteness; design of digital systems in a user-centred way; reaction networks as a framework for systems modelling; emergence of a stable system in reaction networks; emergence at the fundamental systems level; behavioural realization of memoryless functions.

Flow and Heat or Mass Transfer in the Chemical Process Industry

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ISBN: 9783038972389 9783038972396 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-239-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-28 12:14:25
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[Flow through process equipment in a chemical or manufacturing plant (e.g., heat exchangers, reactors, catalyst regeneration units, separation units, pumps, pipes, smoke stacks, etc.) is usually coupled with heat and/or mass transfer. Rigorous investigation of this coupling of momentum, heat, and mass transfer is not only important for the practice of designing process equipment, but is also important for improving our overall theoretical understanding of transfer phenomena. While generalizations and empiricisms, like the concept of the heat transfer coefficient or the widely used Reynolds analogy in turbulence, or the use of empirical transfer equations for flow in separation towers and reactors packed with porous media, have served practical needs in prior decades, such empiricisms can now be revised or altogether replaced by bringing modern experimental and computational tools to bear in understanding the interplay between flow and transfer. The patterns of flow play a critical role in enhancing the transfer of heat and mass. Typical examples are the coherent flow structures in turbulent boundary layers, which are responsible for turbulent transfer and mixing in a heat exchanger and for dispersion from a smoke stack, and the flow patterns that are a function of the configuration of a porous medium and are responsible for transfer in a fixed bed reactor or a fluid bed regenerator unit. The goal of this Special Issue is to be a forum for recent developments in theory, state-of-the-art experiments and computations on the interactions between flow and transfer in single and multi-phase flow, and from small scales to large scales, which can be important for the design of equipment in a chemical processing plant.]

Experimental and Numerical Studies in Biomedical Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039212477 9783039212484 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-248-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The term ‘biomedical engineering’ refers to the application of the principles and problem-solving techniques of engineering to biology and medicine. Biomedical engineering is an interdisciplinary branch, as many of the problems health professionals are confronted with have traditionally been of interest to engineers because they involve processes that are fundamental to engineering practice. Biomedical engineers employ common engineering methods to comprehend, modify, or control biological systems, and to design and manufacture devices that can assist in the diagnosis and therapy of human diseases. This Special Issue of Fluids aims to be a forum for scientists and engineers from academia and industry to present and discuss recent developments in the field of biomedical engineering. It contains papers that tackle, both numerically (Computational Fluid Dynamics studies) and experimentally, biomedical engineering problems, with a diverse range of studies focusing on the fundamental understanding of fluid flows in biological systems, modelling studies on complex rheological phenomena and molecular dynamics, design and improvement of lab-on-a-chip devices, modelling of processes inside the human body as well as drug delivery applications. Contributions have focused on problems associated with subjects that include hemodynamical flows, arterial wall shear stress, targeted drug delivery, FSI/CFD and Multiphysics simulations, molecular dynamics modelling and physiology-based biokinetic models.

The Role of Halo Substructure in Gamma-Ray Dark Matter Searches

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ISBN: 9783039360444 / 9783039360451 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03936-045-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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An important, open research topic today is to understand the relevance that dark matter halo substructure may have for dark matter searches. In the standard cosmological model, halo substructure or subhalos are predicted to be largely abundant inside larger halos, for example, galaxies such as ours, and are thought to form first and later merge to form larger structures. Dwarf satellite galaxies—the most massive exponents of halo substructure in our own galaxy—are already known to be excellent targets for dark matter searches, and indeed, they are constantly scrutinized by current gamma-ray experiments in the search for dark matter signals. Lighter subhalos not massive enough to have a visible counterpart of stars and gas may be good targets as well, given their typical abundances and distances. In addition, the clumpy distribution of subhalos residing in larger halos may boost the dark matter signals considerably. In an era in which gamma-ray experiments possess, for the first time, the exciting potential to put to test the preferred dark matter particle theories, a profound knowledge of dark matter astrophysical targets and scenarios is mandatory should we aim for accurate predictions of dark matter-induced fluxes for investing significant telescope observing time on selected targets and for deriving robust conclusions from our dark matter search efforts. In this regard, a precise characterization of the statistical and structural properties of subhalos becomes critical. In this Special Issue, we aim to summarize where we stand today on our knowledge of the different aspects of the dark matter halo substructure; to identify what are the remaining big questions, and how we could address these; and, by doing so, to find new avenues for research.

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