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Cellular Entry of Binary and Pore-Forming Bacterial Toxins

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ISBN: 9783038427049 9783038427032 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-703-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-08 13:26:54
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Bridging cellular membranes is a key step in the pathogenic action of both binary and pore-forming bacterial toxins. The former use their translocation domains, containing various structural motifs, to ensure efficient delivery of the toxic component into the host cell, while the latter act on the cellular membrane itself. In either case, the integrity of the membrane is compromised via targeted protein–lipid and protein–protein interactions triggered by specific signals, such as proteolytic cleavage or endosomal acidification.This Special Issue presents recent advances in characterizing functional, structural and thermodynamic aspects of the conformational switching and membrane interactions involved in the cellular entry of bacterial protein toxins. Deciphering the physicochemical principles underlying these processes is also a prerequisite for the use of protein engineering to develop toxin-based molecular vehicles capable of targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to tumors and other diseased tissues.

Plant Nutrient Dynamics in Stressful Environments

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ISBN: 9783038970644 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-064-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-20 11:19:35
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The papers included in this special issue cover a broad range of aspects ranging from genetics and breeding to crop production in the field. Climate change, intensified agriculture, modifications of land use, or pollution are often accompanied by larger fluctuations including extreme events. The growing world’s population and nutrient deficiencies in agricultural products for human or animal nutrition, or pollutants in harvested products in some regions (quality of yield), are important points to be integrated in a comprehensive analysis aimed at supporting agriculture on the way into a challenging future. It is therefore necessary to develop suitable models to identify potentials and risks. Instabilities (e.g., caused by climatic factors or pests) should be detected as early as possible to initiate corrections in the nutrient supply or in other growth conditions. Sensitive detection systems for nutrient disorders in the field can facilitate this task, and are therefore, highly desirable

Novel Pharmacological Inhibitors for Bacterial Protein Toxins

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ISBN: 9783038424314 9783038424307 Year: Pages: VI, 118 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-13 09:39:34
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Many medically relevant bacteria cause severe human and animal diseases because they produce and release protein toxins that target mammalian cells. Because the toxin-induced cell damage is the reason for the clinical symptoms, the targeted pharmacological inhibition of the cytotoxic mode of action of bacterial toxins should prevent or cure the respective toxin-associated disease. Toxin inhibitors might be beneficial when the toxin acts in the absence of the producing bacteria (e.g., food poisoning), but also in combination with antibiotics in infectious diseases when the toxin-producing bacteria are present. The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins is on the development and characterization of novel inhibitors against bacterial toxins, e.g., toxin neutralizing antibodies, peptides or small compounds, as well as toxin pore blockers, which interfere with bacterial toxins and thereby protect cells from intoxication.

Metal Metabolism in Animals

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ISBN: 9783038428435 9783038428442 Year: Pages: X, 356 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-20 14:25:48
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Through evolution of life, animals have adapted to the ubiquitous presence of metals in the biosphere. They utilize the more frequent ones as essential constituents of their biochemical machinery. In fact, about 40% of all proteins present in animal cells are so-called metalloproteins. On the other hand, animals have invented regulatory and detoxifying mechanisms to protect themselves from critical concentrations of both essential and non-essential metal concentrations. Metallomics is a modern approach applying cellular, biochemical, molecular and analytical methods to investigate the relationships of metals in their cellular context. The present edition contains a number of original articles and reviews dealing with various aspects of metallomics in animals, published as Special Issues of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences in 2016 and 2017. The book addresses subjects such as metal definition in biology, metabolism of metals in invertebrate and vertebrate animals, metal detoxification and regulation strategies, supplementation of essential trace elements, metal behavior in pregnancy and embryonic development, as well as metal toxicology and emerging medical implications.

Smart Nanovesicles for Drug Targeting and Delivery

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ISBN: 9783038978947 / 9783038978954 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-895-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Nanovesicles are highly-promising systems for the delivery and/or targeting of drugs, biomolecules and contrast agents. Despite the fact that initial studies in this area were performed on phospholipid vesicles, there is an ever-increasing interest in the use of other molecules to obtain smart vesicular carriers focusing on strategies for targeted delivery. These systems can be obtained using newly synthesized smart molecules, or by intelligent design of opportune carriers to achieve specific delivery to the site of action.

Silver Nano/microparticles: Modification and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039211777 / 9783039211784 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-178-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Nano/micro-size particles are widely applied in various fields. Among the various particles, silver particles are considered among the most prominent nanomaterials in the biomedical and industrial sectors because of their favorable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. Thus, numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate their properties and utilize them in various applications, such as diagnostics, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer therapeutics, and optoelectronics. The properties of silver particles are strongly influenced by their size, morphological shape, and surface characteristics, which can be modified by diverse synthetic methods, reducing agents, and stabilizers. This Special Issue provides a range of original contributions detailing the synthesis, modification, properties, and applications of silver materials. Nine outstanding papers describing examples of the most recent advances in silver nano/microparticles are included. Silver nano/micro-size particles have many potential advantages as next-generation materials in various areas, including nanomedicine. This Special Issue might be helpful to understand the value of silver particles in the biomedical and industrial fields

Marine Biotoxins and Seafood Poisoning

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ISBN: 9783039218189 / 9783039218196 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-819-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Marine biotoxins may pose a threat to the human consumption of seafood and seafood products. The increasing global trade and higher demand for seafood products worldwide represents a challenge for food safety authorities, policy makers, food business operators, and the scientific community, in particular, researchers devoted to environmental sciences, toxicology, and analytical chemistry. In addition, due to changes in climate conditions and technological developments, new and emerging marine toxins are being detected in regions where they were previously unknown. This Special Issue highlight studies aiming to the develop detection methods for marine biotoxins for better understanding the dynamics of accumulation/elimination of marine biotoxins and their effects on marine organisms, as well as toxin exposure studies that aim to evaluate the risks associated with the consumption of contaminated seafood.

Ceramic Conductors

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ISBN: 9783038979562 / 9783038979579 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-957-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This Special Issue of Crystals contains papers focusing on various properties of conducting ceramics. Multiple aspects of both the research and application of this group of materials have been addressed. Conducting ceramics are the wide group of mostly oxide materials which play crucial roles in various technical applications, especially in the context of the harvesting and storage of energy. Without ion-conducting oxides, such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, doped ceria devices such as solid oxide fuel cells would not exist, not to mention the wide group of other ion conductors which can be applied in batteries or even electrolyzers, besides fuel cells. The works published in this Special Issue tackle experimental results as well as general theoretical trends in the field of ceramic conductors, or electroceramics, as it is often referred to.

Progress in Water Footprint Assessment

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ISBN: 9783039210381 / 9783039210398 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-039-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Water Footprint Assessment is a young research field that considers how freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution relate to consumption, production, and trade patterns. This book presents a wide range of studies within this new field. It is argued that collective and coordinated action - at different scale levels and along all stages of commodity supply chains - is necessary to bring about more sustainable, efficient, and equitable water use. The presented studies range from farm to catchment and country level, and show how different actors along the supply chain of final commodities can contribute to more sustainable water use in the chain.

Synthesis and Applications of Biopolymer Composites

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ISBN: 9783039211326 / 9783039211333 Year: Pages: 312 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-133-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book, as a collection of 17 research articles, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of environmentally friendly and biodegradable biopolymer composites and nanocomposites. Recently, the demand has been growing for a clean and pollution-free environment and an evident target regarding the minimization of fossil fuel usage. Therefore, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based commodity plastics by biodegradable materials arising from biological and renewable resources. Biopolymers—polymers produced from natural sources either chemically from a biological material or biosynthesized by living organisms—are suitable alternatives for addressing these issues due to their outstanding properties, including good barrier performance, biodegradation ability, and low weight. However, they generally possess poor mechanical properties, a short fatigue life, low chemical resistance, poor long-term durability, and limited processing capability. In order to overcome these deficiencies, biopolymers can be reinforced with fillers or nanofillers (with at least one of their dimensions in the nanometer range). Bionanocomposites are advantageous for a wide range of applications, such as in medicine, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food packaging, agriculture, forestry, electronics, transport, construction, and many more.

Keywords

nanocellulose --- protease sensor --- human neutrophil elastase --- peptide-cellulose conformation --- aerogel --- glycol chitosan --- ?-tocopherol succinate --- amphiphilic polymer --- micelles --- paclitaxel --- chitosan --- PVA --- nanofibers --- electrospinning --- nanocellulose --- carbon nanotubes --- nanocomposite --- conductivity --- surfactant --- Poly(propylene carbonate) --- thermoplastic polyurethane --- compatibility --- toughness --- biopolyester --- compatibilizer --- cellulose --- elastomer --- toughening --- biodisintegration --- heat deflection temperature --- biopolymers composites --- MgO whiskers --- PLLA --- in vitro degradation --- natural rubber --- plasticized starch --- polyfunctional monomers --- physical and mechanical properties --- cross-link density --- water uptake --- chitosan --- deoxycholic acid --- folic acid --- amphiphilic polymer --- micelles --- paclitaxel --- silk fibroin --- glass transition --- DMA --- FTIR --- stress-strain --- active packaging materials --- alginate films --- antimicrobial agents --- antioxidant activity --- biodegradable films --- essential oils --- polycarbonate --- thermal decomposition kinetics --- TG/FTIR --- Py-GC/MS --- wheat gluten --- potato protein --- chemical pre-treatment --- structural profile --- tensile properties --- biocomposites --- natural fibers --- poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-3-hydroxyvalerate) --- biodegradation --- impact properties --- chitin nanofibrils --- poly(lactic acid) --- nanocomposites --- bio-based polymers --- natural fibers --- biomass --- biocomposites --- fiber/matrix adhesion --- bio-composites --- mechanical properties --- poly(lactic acid) --- cellulose fibers --- n/a

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