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Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine

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ISBN: 9783038977827 9783038977834 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-783-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Abstract

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungal species. They can contaminate human food and animal feed, and have been a threat for thousands of years. The gastrointestinal tract is the first target when ingesting mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed. As unlikely as it sounds, the investigations concerning the effects of mycotoxins on the intestine are still in their early stages. This book gathers the most recent advances related to the characterization of the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins. Substantial data assembled on the damage caused to a number of histological structures and functions of the intestine remove any remaining doubt about this organ being a primary target for the toxicity of mycotoxins. An interesting overview of the detrimental effects of mycotoxins on the gut-hosted microbiota—now regarded as a fully-fledged organ associated with the gut—is also given. Finally, outstanding contributions in this book address questions relating to the suitability of current regulations to protect against alterations of the intestine, and to the efficacy assessment of new detoxification strategies using the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins as a relevant endpoint.

Keywords

mice --- aflatoxin B1 --- intestinal bacterial flora --- response --- Clostridium sp. WJ06 --- deoxynivalenol --- pig --- intestinal morphology --- microbial diversity --- aflatoxin M1 --- ochratoxin A --- intestinal epithelial cells --- tight junction --- permeability --- ileum --- jejunum --- deoxynivalenol --- piglet --- contaminated feed --- tight junction --- aflatoxin B1 --- small intestine --- histopathological lesions --- ultrastructural changes --- toll-like receptors --- T-2 toxin --- enteric nervous system --- pig --- vasoactive intestinal polypeptide --- mycotoxins --- zearalenone --- deoxynivalenol --- histology --- ultrastructure --- large intestine --- pig --- Claviceps --- liver --- digestive tract --- mycotoxin --- sclerotia --- ergot alkaloids --- toxicity --- deoxynivalenol --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 --- intestine --- transcriptome --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- lipid metabolism --- fumonisin --- microbiota --- pigs --- MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing --- intestinal microbiota --- hydrogen-rich water --- lactulose --- Fusarium mycotoxins --- piglets --- functional oligosaccharides --- mycotoxins --- swine --- explant technique --- intestinal morphology --- goblet cells --- deoxynivalenol --- zearalenone --- pig --- colon microbiota --- Lactobacillus --- detoxification --- zearalenone --- doses --- caecal water --- genotoxicity --- pre-pubertal gilts --- atlantic salmon --- deoxynivalenol --- feed --- intestine --- PCR --- proliferating cell nuclear antigen --- suppressor of cytokine signaling --- tight junctions --- Zearalenone --- N-acetylcysteine --- SIEC02 cells --- Mitochondrial apoptosis --- n/a

Nutrition and Eye Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039219902 / 9783039219919 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-991-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Abstract

Blindness and visual impairment impact significantly on an individual’s physical and mental well-being. Loss of vision is a global health problem, with approximately 250 million of the world’s population currently living with vision loss, of which 36 million are classified as blind. Visual impairment is more frequent in the elderly, with cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) accounting for over 50% of cases globally. Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of both conditions, and consequently the role of nutritional factors, in particular carotenoids and micronutrient antioxidants, have been investigated as possible preventative or therapeutic strategies. Dry eye syndrome (DES) is one of the most common ophthalmic conditions in the world. DES occurs where the eye does not produce enough tears and/or the tears evaporate too quicklyleading to discomfort and varying degrees of visual disturbance. There has recently been a great deal of interest in the potential for oral or topical supplementation with essential fatty acids (EFAs), specifically omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, as an adjunct to conventional treatments for DES. The objective of this Special Issue on ‘Nutrition and Eye Health’ is to publish papers describing the role of nutrition in maintaining eye health and the use of nutritional interventions to prevent or treat ocular disease. A particular (but not exclusive) emphasis will be on papers (reviews and/or clinical or experimental studies) relating to cataract, AMD and DES.

Keywords

lutein --- RR-zeaxanthin --- mesozeaxanthin (RS zeaxanthin) --- light damage --- photoreceptor degeneration --- oxidative stress --- endoplasmic reticulum stress --- electroretinography --- advanced glycation end products --- chyrsin --- diabetic retinopathy --- endoplasmic reticulum --- retinal pigment epithelium --- visual cycle --- cataract --- phytoconstituents --- lens --- preclinical models --- drug discovery --- age-related macular degeneration --- gut-retina axis --- gut microbiota --- dietary habits --- micronutrients --- fish oil --- omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids --- personalised medicine --- Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 --- retina --- light --- macrophage --- saffron --- Crocus Sativus L. --- crocin --- crocetin --- supplements --- anti-oxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- AMD --- diabetes --- glaucoma --- retina --- oxidative stress --- inflammation --- microvascular lesions --- neoangiogenesis --- polyphenols --- flavonoids --- carotenoids --- saponins --- rosmarinic acid --- sinapic acid --- lenses --- estrogen-deficient rats --- oxidative stress --- reduced glutathione --- omega-3 --- fatty acid --- diet --- dietary assessment --- clinical survey --- eye disease --- dry eye --- age-related macular degeneration --- food frequency questionnaire --- CODS --- clinical practice guidelines --- systematic reviews --- age-related macular degeneration --- nutritional supplements --- diet --- nutrition --- AGREE II --- Cucurbita argyrosperma --- corneal chemical burn --- angiogenesis --- corneal neovascularization (CNV) --- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) --- interleukin-1? (IL-1?) --- cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) --- nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) --- dietary antioxidants --- antioxidant supplements --- lens --- cataract --- n/a

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eng (2)


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