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A Conversation about Healthy Eating

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ISBN: 9781911576754 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781911576754 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press Grant: European Research Council (ERC) - 2011-AdG-295486
Subject: Biology --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-21 11:02:05
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What constitutes a healthy diet? Mainstream media and advertisers would like you to think that the answer to this question is complicated and controversial. But science, fortunately, tells us otherwise. A Conversation about Healthy Eating brings together all the relevant science about healthy eating in one place, and it’s exactly that – a conversation; an informal discussion between a scientist and a friend about their eating habits, keeping the science firmly rooted in everyday life. The conversation moves from topics such as metabolism and digestion to gut bacteria, hormones, neuroscience and the immune system. All of these concepts are explained in accessible terms to help you understand the roles they play in maintaining a healthy diet. The conversation leads to the conclusion that staying lean and healthy simply requires avoiding the overconsumption of processed foods. While this is, of course, easier said than done, science also provides clear recommendations for how you can adapt your environment and lifestyle to make it possible. Rather than simply presenting you with the principles of healthy eating, this book will help you to develop a comprehensive understanding of the science behind the principles, including the evolutionary facts that affect the way we eat today. This understanding will allow you to ignore the noise in the media and to move forward with a healthy lifestyle that work for you.

Keywords

diet --- neuroscience --- food --- eating

37 Neuroscientific Threaths to Free Will (Book chapter)

Book title: The Routledge Companion to Free Will

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781138795815 9781315758206 Year: Pages: 12 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Philosophy --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-26 11:01:52
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In this chapter, I review recent work on neuroscientifi c threats to free will. What is it for something to threaten free will? Consider, fi rst, an apparent threat. You are walking in the dark, and a shadow looms in the distance. It certainly appears threatening, but you are not sure. What do you do? You consider the source of the threat (the thing casting the shadow, and you attempt to discover whether the threat is actual (an attacker) or merely apparent (a tree). And if the threat is actual, you attempt to discern what epistemic and behavioral changes are required of you.

Keywords

free will --- threats --- neuroscience

The Theoretical Foundation of Dendritic Function

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Computational Neuroscience Series ISBN: 9780262193566 9780262515467 Year: Pages: 468 Language: English
Publisher: The MIT Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:41:34
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This collection of fifteen previously published papers, some of them not widely available, have been carefully chosen and annotated by Rall's colleagues and other leading neuroscientists.Wilfrid Rall was a pioneer in establishing the integrative functions of neuronal dendrites that have provided a foundation for neurobiology in general and computational neuroscience in particular. This collection of fifteen previously published papers, some of them not widely available, have been carefully chosen and annotated by Rall's colleagues and other leading neuroscientists. It brings together Rall's work over more than forty years, including his first papers extending cable theory to complex dendritic trees, his ground-breaking paper introducing compartmental analysis to computational neuroscience, and his studies of synaptic integration in motoneurons, dendrodendritic interactions, plasticity of dendritic spines, and active dendritic properties. Today it is well known that the brain's synaptic information is processed mostly in the dendrites where many of the plastic changes underlying learning and memory take place. It is particularly timely to look again at the work of a major creator of the field, to appreciate where things started and where they have led, and to correct any misinterpretations of Rall's work. The editors' introduction highlights the major insights that were gained from Rall's studies as well as from those of his collaborators and followers. It asks the questions that Rall proposed during his scientific career and briefly summarizes the answers.The papers include commentaries by Milton Brightman, Robert E. Burke, William R. Holmes, Donald R. Humphrey, Julian J. B. Jack, John Miller, Stephen Redman, John Rinzel, Idan Segev, Gordon M. Shepherd, and Charles Wilson.

Behold Our Moral Body. Psychiatry, Duns Scotus and Neuroscience

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ISBN: 9788376560359 Year: Pages: 137 DOI: 10.2478/9788376560359 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-05 13:25:13
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For centuries, science and religion have been on the opposite sides of the debate about the moral nature of human beings. Now science is confirming what people of faith have long known: human morality is embedded in our biology. Drawing on the latest research in neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and behavioral science, this book affirms the four-fold prophetic vision of morality as expressed hundreds of years ago by the great philosopher and theologian, the Blessed John Duns Scotus. It proclaims the dignity of the individual and celebrates freedom of will for moral living, stemming from the place of innate natural goodness where love prevails.

An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Human Mind

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ISBN: 9781138233423 9781315309699 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100808
Subject: Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:13
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One of the main aims of modern mental health care is to understand a person's explicit and implicit ways of thinking and acting. So, it may seem like the ultimate paradox that mental health care services are currently overflowing with brain concepts belonging to the external, visible brain-world and that neuroscientists are poised to become new experts on human conduct. An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Human Mind shows that to create care that is truly innovative, mental health care workers must not only ask questions about how their conceptions of human beings and psychological phenomena came into being, but should also see themselves as co-creators of the mystery they seek to solve.

Representation in Cognitive Science

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ISBN: 9780198812883 Year: Pages: 304 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198812883.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 681422
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:11
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"Our thoughts are meaningful. We think about things in the outside world; how can that be so? This is one of the deepest questions in contemporary philosophy. Ever since the 'cognitive revolution', states with meaning-mental representations-have been the key explanatory construct of the cognitive sciences. But there is still no widely accepted theory of how mental representations get their meaning. Powerful new methods in cognitive neuroscience can now reveal information processing in the brain in unprecedented detail. They show how the brain performs complex calculations on neural representations. Drawing on this cutting-edge research, Nicholas Shea uses a series of case studies from the cognitive sciences to develop a naturalistic account of the nature of mental representation. His approach is distinctive in focusing firmly on the 'subpersonal' representations that pervade so much of cognitive science. The diversity and depth of the case studies, illustrated by numerous figures, make this book unlike any previous treatment. It is important reading for philosophers of psychology and philosophers of mind, and of considerable interest to researchers throughout the cognitive sciences."

Persons and Their Minds

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ISBN: 9781138653696 9781315623658 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102658
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-06 11:21:03
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Today’s approaches to the study of the human mind are divided into seemingly opposed camps. On one side we find the neurosciences, with their more or less reductionist research programs, and on the other side we find the cultural and discursive approaches, with their frequent neglect of the material sides of human life. Persons and their Minds seeks to develop an integrative theory of the mind with room for both brain and culture. Brinkmann’s remarkable and thought-provoking work is one of the first books to integrate brain research with phenomenology, social practice studies and actor-network theory, all of which are held together by the concept of the person.

Chapter 1 Introduction (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781138891722 Year: Pages: 8 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Linguistics --- Psychology --- Biology --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-04 10:28:33
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Biolinguistics is a highly interdisciplinary field that seeks the rapprochement between linguistics and biology. Linking theoretical linguistics, theoretical biology, genetics, neuroscience and cognitive psychology, this book offers a collection of chapters situating the enterprise conceptually, highlighting both the promises and challenges of the field, and chapters focusing on the challenges and prospects of taking interdisciplinarity seriously. It provides concrete illustrations of some of the cutting-edge research in biolinguistics and piques the interest of undergraduate students looking for a field to major in and inspires graduate students on possible research directions. It is also meant to show to specialists in adjacent fields how a particular strand of theoretical linguistics relates to their concerns, and in so doing, the book intends to foster collaboration across disciplines.

Information Theory in Neuroscience

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038976646 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-665-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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As the ultimate information processing device, the brain naturally lends itself to being studied with information theory. The application of information theory to neuroscience has spurred the development of principled theories of brain function, and has led to advances in the study of consciousness, as well as to the development of analytical techniques to crack the neural code—that is, to unveil the language used by neurons to encode and process information. In particular, advances in experimental techniques enabling the precise recording and manipulation of neural activity on a large scale now enable for the first time the precise formulation and the quantitative testing of hypotheses about how the brain encodes and transmits the information used for specific functions across areas. This Special Issue presents twelve original contributions on novel approaches in neuroscience using information theory, and on the development of new information theoretic results inspired by problems in neuroscience.

Neuroproteomics

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039281060 9783039281077 Year: Pages: 318 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-107-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The Neuroproteomics Special Issue overviews the unique challenges that must be addressed to carry out meaningful MS/proteomics analyses on neural tissues and the technologies that are available to meet these challenges. The articles on Alzheimer’s disease, addiction, and schizophrenia illustrate how MS/proteomics technologies can be used to improve our ability to diagnose and understand the molecular basis for neurological diseases. Several articles will be of interest to investigators beyond the field of neurological disorders. The review on the discovery of biofluid biomarkers of neurodegenerative dementias will be of interest to investigators searching for other disease biomarkers. Similarly, the review on the role of neuroproteomics in elucidating mechanisms of drug addiction provides an overview of the utility of MS/proteomics approaches for addressing critical questions in addiction neuroscience that should be applicable to investigators involved in virtually any area of biomedical research. Likewise, the article on developing targeted MS approaches for quantifying postsynaptic density proteins will be useful for any investigator who wishes to design targeted assays for virtually any protein. Finally, the peroxidase-mediated proximity labeling technology, described in the article on mapping the proteome of the synaptic cleft, will be of interest to investigators interested in mapping other spatially restricted proteomes.

Keywords

proteomics --- basal ganglia --- synapses --- synapse specificity --- neuronal circuits --- axons --- dendrites --- neurodegeneration --- synapse --- postsynaptic --- proteome --- mass spectrometry --- protein interaction networks --- connectome --- neurodegeneration --- Alzheimer’s disease --- cerebrospinal fluid --- plasma --- serum --- proteomics --- biomarkers --- LC-MS/MS --- cocaine --- addiction --- cytokine --- neuroimmune --- ventral tegmental area --- peptidylglycine ?-amidating monooxygenase --- cilia --- mating --- signal peptide --- prohormone convertase --- carboxypeptidase --- matrix metalloproteinase --- subtilisin --- pherophorin --- morphine --- opioid receptors --- conformational antibody --- analgesia --- GPCR signaling --- phosphorylation --- AMPA receptor complex --- transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein --- synaptic plasticity --- adolescence --- corticosterone --- proteomics --- yohimbine --- progressive ratio --- reinstatement --- ethanol --- nicotinic receptor --- CaMKII --- PKA --- quantitative phosphoproteomics --- mouse --- phosphorylation --- nicotine --- proteomics --- proteome --- mass spectrometry --- Alzheimer’s disease --- protein aggregation --- laser capture microdissection --- splicing --- U1 snRNP --- synapse --- synaptic cleft --- trans-synaptic adhesion --- proximity labeling --- SynCAM --- Cadm --- Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase zeta --- R-PTP-zeta --- Ptprz1 --- neuroproteome --- drug abuse --- neuropeptidomics --- phosphorylation --- interactome --- cell type --- neuroscience --- proteomics --- mass spectrometry --- neuron --- proximity labeling --- affinity chromatography --- neuroproteomics --- biotinylation --- amphetamine --- spinophilin --- protein phosphatase-1 --- dopamine --- striatum --- mass spectroscopy --- bioinformatics --- FGF14 --- voltage gated channels --- schizophrenia --- autism --- Alzheimer’s Disease --- sex-specific differences --- synaptic plasticity --- cognitive impairment --- excitatory/inhibitory tone --- n/a --- postsynaptic density --- PSD --- parallel reaction monitoring --- PRM --- targeted proteomics --- data-independent acquisition --- DIA --- quantitative mass spectrometry --- n/a

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