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HIV Infection in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment and Some of Its Associated Complications

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ISBN: 9789533077017 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.5772/1752 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a complex illness affecting the immune system. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an advanced form of HIV infection in which the patient has developed opportunistic infections or certain types of cancer and/or the CD4+ T cell count has dropped below 200/μL. More than 40 million persons around the world are infected with HIV, with approximately 14,000 new infections every day. The disease causes 3 million deaths worldwide each year, 95% of them in developing countries. Optimal management of human immunodeficiency virus requires strict adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) regimens, but the complexity of these regimens (e.g., pill burden, food requirements, drug interactions, and severe adverse effects) limits effective treatment. However, more patients with HIV are surviving longer today because of these drugs. This allows further study of commonly associated adverse effects. These may affect all body systems and range from serious toxicities to uncomfortable but manageable events. This book reviews some of HAART-related metabolic and neurological complications.

Understanding Tuberculosis - Global Experiences and Innovative Approaches to the Diagnosis

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ISBN: 9789533079387 Year: Pages: 564 DOI: 10.5772/1483 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a disease that is transmitted through aerosol. This is the reason why it is estimated that a third of humankind is already infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The vast majority of the infected do not know about their status. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a silent pathogen, causing no symptomatology at all during the infection. In addition, infected people cannot cause further infections. Unfortunately, an estimated 10 per cent of the infected population has the probability to develop the disease, making it very difficult to eradicate. Once in this stage, the bacilli can be transmitted to other persons and the development of clinical symptoms is very progressive. Therefore the diagnosis, especially the discrimination between infection and disease, is a real challenge. In this book, we present the experience of worldwide specialists on the diagnosis, along with its lights and shadows.

Understanding Tuberculosis - New Approaches to Fighting Against Drug Resistance

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ISBN: 9789533079486 Year: Pages: 388 DOI: 10.5772/2477 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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In 1957, a Streptomyces strain, the ME/83 (S.mediterranei), was isolated in the Lepetit Research Laboratories from a soil sample collected at a pine arboretum near Saint Raphael, France. This drug was the base for the chemotherapy with Streptomicine. The euphoria generated by the success of this regimen lead to the idea that TB eradication would be possible by the year 2000. Thus, any further drug development against TB was stopped. Unfortunately, the lack of an accurate administration of these drugs originated the irruption of the drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Once the global emergency was declared in 1993, seeking out new drugs became urgent. In this book, diverse authors focus on the development and the activity of the new drug families.

Understanding Tuberculosis - Deciphering the Secret Life of the Bacilli

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ISBN: 9789533079462 Year: Pages: 346 DOI: 10.5772/2479 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as recent investigations demonstrate, has a complex signaling expression, which allows its close interaction with the environment and one of its most renowned properties: the ability to persist for long periods of time under a non-replicative status. Although this skill is well characterized in other bacteria, the intrinsically very slow growth rate of Mycobium tuberculosis, together with a very thick and complex cell wall, makes this pathogen specially adapted to the stress that could be generated by the host against them. In this book, different aspects of these properties are displayed by specialists in the field.

Understanding Tuberculosis - Analyzing the Origin of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Pathogenicity

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ISBN: 9789533079424 Year: Pages: 572 DOI: 10.5772/2478 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an attempt to understand the extent to which the bacilli has adapted itself to the host and to its final target. On the other hand, there is a section in which other specialists discuss how to manipulate this immune response to obtain innovative prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to truncate the intimal co-evolution between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the Homo sapiens.

Current Topics in Tropical Medicine

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ISBN: 9789535102748 Year: Pages: 578 DOI: 10.5772/1335 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
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Tropical Medicine has emerged and remained as an important discipline for the study of diseases endemic in the tropic, particularly those of infectious etiology. Emergence and reemergence of many tropical pathologies have recently aroused the interest of many fields of the study of tropical medicine, even including new infectious agents. Then evidence-based information in the field and regular updates are necessary. Current Topics in Tropical Medicine presents an updated information on multiple diseases and conditions of interest in the field. It Includes pathologies caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites, protozoans and helminths, as well as tropical non-infectious conditions. Many of them are considering not only epidemiological aspects, but also diagnostic, therapeutical, preventive, social, genetic, bioinformatic and molecular ones. With participation of authors from various countries, many from proper endemic areas, this book has a wide geographical perspective. Finally, all of these characteristics, make an excellent update on many aspects of tropical medicine in the world.

Salmonella - Distribution, Adaptation, Control Measures and Molecular Technologies

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ISBN: 9789535106616 9789535142898 Year: Pages: 518 DOI: 10.5772/2470 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The discovery of Salmonella in swine in 1885 marked the beginning of intense efforts to control salmonellae that have continued for the past 127 years. The majority of foodborne outbreaks are caused by only a few of the 2500+ known serovars. While progress has been made on many fronts, salmonellosis has yet to be eliminated in either developed or in developing nations. This work represents the collective contributions of authors from all around the world. Chapters in this book address a wide array of topics related to understanding and controlling this pathogen, including: Salmonella as studied in the environment, air and in food products; virulence and pathogenicity; control by bacteriophages and other antimicrobials; bacterial adaptation; etc.

Leishmaniasis - Trends in Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Treatment

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ISBN: 9789535112327 9789535142362 Year: Pages: 536 DOI: 10.5772/57067 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Of all the parasitic diseases, leishmaniasis is one of the most diverse, with a variety of manifestations, from relatively minor cutaneous lesions to deadly visceral infections. It is also widespread, causing human disease in the Americas, Asia, Europe and Africa. The environments in which this disease occurs range from desert to tropical jungle to urban habitats. Not surprisingly, the literature on this disease is written in a variety of languages including Portuguese, Arabic, English and French among others. This book provides a synopsis in English of much of the recent research on leishmaniasis, with a focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of the disease as described by researchers around the world, but with a focus on the research from Brazil and the Middle East.

Herpesviridae

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ISBN: 9789535126102 9789535126119 9789535141853 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.5772/61923 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
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Herpesviruses are unique among viruses as they encode for a complex self-regulatory system, aggressively invade and persist in the host, evade immune defense, alter all regulatory mechanisms of the macroorganism and modify the replication of heterologous viruses. Environmental factors influence these unconventional relationships. Consequently, a single herpesvirus species can be attributed to a wide range of diseases as etiological agents or cofactors. This book is intended to give an overview on selected clinical hot topics: herpes simplex virus encephalitis, persistent infection in the gingiva, thymidine kinase gene expression causing male infertility, and pharmaceutical reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus for oncolysis. Immune evasion mechanisms and new ways to formulate vaccines are exhaustively reviewed. Finally, a surprise: bovine herpesviruses could serve as models to study the pathomechanism of herpesviruses.

Steps Forwards in Diagnosing and Controlling Influenza

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ISBN: 9789535127321 9789535127338 9789535141631 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.5772/61910 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 3-5 million cases of severe influenza worldwide will result in 250,000-500,000 deaths annually. Collectively, data are shared via the WHO's Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS), which includes 143 institutions in 113 WHO member states, to help alert the emergence of antigenic variants or the beginning of a pandemic. In April 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cited the first incidence of human-to-human transmission of pandemic H1N1, also referred to as swine influenza A, which was antigenically distinct from other circulating human H1N1. As the first influenza pandemic of the twenty-first century, pandemic H1N1 was not included in the annual trivalent vaccine regimen, leaving a large majority of the population unprotected from the newly emerging pathogen.

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