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Geschichte der venezianischen Malerei, Band 1

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ISBN: 9783205776222 Pages: 375 Seiten Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3912
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:20

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The present manuscript is meant as volume I of a series of books comprising four volumes in total. Except for Hüttinger´s barely sufficient survey, its object, an overall presentation of Venetian painting from the early beginnings till the 18th and 19th centuries, has almost been neglected by German scholars up to this day. The same may be said about Italian investigations, the more so as the book-series Pittura nell Veneto (edited in several volumes) strongly resembles a corpus opus: It does comprise the most important facts (e.g.the biographies of the artists) and provides a fine collection of pictures as well as a presentation of the momentary status of research, making every effort to completeness, but purely artistic, developmental, iconographic, style-genetic and coloring problems are examined in a rather rudimentary manner and, moreover, organised in a way which cannot easily be followed by the reader. When overlooking the numerous single publications by Italian authors, one will realize that they share an almost incomprehensible timidity of analysing the paintings thoroughly. Such an attempt, however, must be considered the only proper way to get to the root of both development and peculiarity of Venetian painting, so well characterized by Hetzer´s term "ornamental".Comparative work interpretations will have to meet this scientific deficiency. Proceeding from a descriptive technique based on the specific structure and thustaking form as well as colour into consideration, the theories of morphology and perceptive psychology largely contribute to this intention. Only on the ground of visual findings which have been proven analytically, questions of how to date properly, of how to decide possible work participation and/or dependence of the artists can be clarified, with the additional goal of reaching hermeneutic results and working out what is considered typically Venetian.- Volume I starts out with a survey of Venetian history till the middle of the 15th century, leading from the mosaics of San Marco (beginning with the 11th century) to the second half of the quattrocento. Contrary to usual scholarly views, the art of mosaics is classed with the art of painting, for it incorporates the very same criteria of painting as to form, style and arrangement. The main point here is to bring O.Demus´s scientific results with reference to chronology, genesis of style etc. in accordance with those of Italian scientists who quite frequently hold different views, and to come up with personal decisions at times. Prevailing in the mosaics of San Marco, Byzantinism conditions Venetian painting (fresco and table painting, which gets into being at the end of the 13th century) and remains dominant till late into the trecento. Here it is first observed with Paolo Veneziano, who seldom glances at the development of the occidental style on Terraferma (e.g. Giotto). The ensuing breakthrough of the Gothic style is found with Lorenzo Veneziano. In its course, Byzantine, Upper-Italian and transalpine stimulations fuse into a remarkable symbiosis. Hence investigations in the field of coloring, which have rarely been dealt with in specialized literature, play and hitherto will play a decisive rôle in the evaluation of Venetian painting. A special chapter is dedicated to N. Semitecolo who stands under Padua´s influence (cf. Guariento). After recurrences to conservative Byzantine elements in the last third of the trecento, the international Gothic style celebrates its entry into Venetian painting (cf Jacobello de Fiore) under the strong influence of Gentile da Fabriano. At the same time, first signs of a more modern attitude to painting can be observed with Giambono. Far longer than in the rest of Italy, painting in Venice was partial to the tendencies of the international Gothic as well as to elements of splendour, decoration and space. This explains why first indications of the early renaissance appear rather late, mainly in the works of G. d´Al

Die Modernisierung politischer Systeme

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ISBN: 9783205992028 Year: Pages: 730 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_472490 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3152
Added to DOAB on : 2014-04-11 23:26:32
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Part one of the book discusses political systems of Developing Countries. It suggests that the concept of neopatrimonialism is becoming more and more important. Neopatrimonial systems are characterized by three components: Personal rule, political clientelism and endemic corruption. The neopatrimonial state is essentially a weak state, where the production of public goods is very low and the road to the failure of the state open. For the transformation or improvement of a neopatrimonial system a developmental state is necessary.Part two tries to give a theory of the state. The state is understood as a set of complex institutions. Historical institutionalism seems therefore to be the correct approach. Four institutional complexes are needed for consolidated modern statehood: The military for the security of the state – the military revolution can be regarded as the most important factor in explaining the origin of the state. Territorial segmentation is at the same time the building principle for the international political system. As the professionalism of the military increases, a new institutional complex becomes necessary for the security of the citizens: the police, and the police is the institution for the monopoly of legitimate violence.The second institutional complex is taxation and the ordering of state finances (the budget). Taxes are historically a consequence of standing armies. Today taxation is an important dimension of state capabilities.The third complex is the bureaucracy – necessary for the production of decisions based on general rules. An effective bureaucracy is a precondition for the development of the welfare state. Corruption its main problem.The forth complex is placed at the top of the state – governing all the other institutions. It is essentially the government in combination with the parliament as a law-making institution.Part three tries to explain the process of democratization. Democracy needs three subsystems: the public sphere as the interaction of mass media and discourses of the citizens. A party system, where the parties are based on political ideologies. And a parliament, as the center of a representative government. Responsiveness can be explained as a consequence of general free elections.

Ungleiche Entwicklung in Zentraleuropa

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ISBN: 9783205796381 Year: Pages: 538 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_575226 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 214
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-12 11:01:12
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The Habsburg crownland Galicia was one of the poorest region of the Habsburg Monarchy and could in the 19th century only rudimentarily catch up with industrialization and income growth of other regions. The book shows how over the long run the unequal transregional entanglements, in particular concerning commodity trade, alongside with the imperial economic policy restrained Galicia’s economic development between 1772 and 1914.

Das schwarze Wien

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ISBN: 9783205202929 Year: Pages: 295 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_628294 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 360
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-04 11:01:49
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This book deals with the housing- and settlement-policy of the authoritarian Austrian Corporate State (Staendestaat) in Vienna between 1934 and 1938. National and international dialogues led to building strategies for a car-friendly city. Different types of flats, settlements and administration buildings will be shown, as well as planned monumental buildings of the unity party Fatherland Front (Vaterlaendische Front).

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