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Die Alpen im Frühmittelalter

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ISBN: 9783205787693 Year: Pages: 423 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437227 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4287
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:50:01
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This book follows a new path of describing the Alps from the years 500 to 800. Instead of running through this mountain range from east to west (or reverse) and writing one local history after the other, relevant patterns were captured: patterns of control, borders, communication routes, Christendom, settlement, economy, local methods to establish power and traces of local identity. Comparing theses structures on an interregional level made it possible to establish a new view on the early medieval alpine regions. By the year 500 the inhabitants of this central European mountain range were typically roman-provincial. Some regional differences existed, yet the main factors were quite similar: language, laws, religion (Christendom) and social structures. From the 6th c. on this changed. New political developments made a large part of the alpine provinces turn northwards to the Frankish realms. As a consequence borders were created within the Alps. Many hilltop settlements and strongholds in the valleys were built to guarantee the security both of population and borders. Militia was installed to control these boundaries; they were either recruited from the local population or got especially settled for these means. This change of view made some Roman topoi disappear: the Alps were no longer regarded as hostile and as the walls of Italy. The routes through the Alps changed. One reason for this was the growing number of pilgrims from the British Isles made the passage through Maurienne and over the Mont Cenis more important than the ancient route via Montgenèvre. The central Alps in Curia remained a highly important point to cross the mountains, whereas more eastwards the once important crossing points became mere backroads. Farther east the Avarian-Slavic conquest caused the sources to silence, nevertheless the communication routes remained visible through archaeological findings and place names. A big change for the alpine population was the transformations in settlement patterns, first of all the diminishing importance of Roman cities. Some of them disappeared completely, such as Teurnia, Aguntum and Octodurum. Nevertheless, the wider settlement areas around these former towns always remained important. New centres emerged. Some had roman roots, for example Iuvavum/Salzburg, others were new foundations, like the numerous cloisters from the 8th c. The church played a significant role in this transformation, as a bishop's see or the burial church of a saint constituted a point of attraction for the local population. The antique transalpine and alpine networks of trade underwent some transitions. Goods like olive oil, high quality pottery and sea salt were no longer brought over the Alps. The eastern alpine ore deposits were not exploited on a grand scale anymore. New natural resources became important, for example the salt deposits in the northern Alps. There are some traces of exported products. The vineyards of the Southern Alps produced vine for export to the north-alpine regions and the central alpine soapstone production supplied the population of the whole mountain range with high quality cookware. In addition to this, products like cheese, wool, honey and lumber might have been exported. Alpine agriculture did not change much. Farming was based on subsistence and the surplus was sold locally to travellers or given to the owners of the land. The use of alpine pastures roots in pre-roman times and was practised continually, although the intensity of the pastoralism is difficult to estimate. Local power structures emerged out of late antique roots. In the 8th and beginning of the 9th c. the population of these parts of the Alps still spoke a roman language, were Christian and lived in a very differentiated social structure whose legal habits were based on roman law. Contrary to that, the eastern Alps saw a major cultural shift that resulted in the Slavic reign of Carantania.

Sekundäre Märkte?

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ISBN: 9783205786788 Year: Pages: 302 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_574650 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4251
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-07 11:01:12
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Few historians have followed the entire "life-cycle" of a product; especially "secondary" forms of use, transfer and alteration - for example repair works or the trade in used goods - often have been neglected. This exclusion of secondary markets and secondary product cycles seems problematic, since they were - regarding the factors of production - of a specific importance for pre-modern economy and society: for many craftsmen especially in the textile branch repair works formed a significant part of their daily business, in addition numerous people found possibilities to earn a living in fields that specialized on trading with second-hand ware or the collecting and reprocessing of scrap materials. Especially metals or glass, but also textiles (rags for paper making) were recycled to a considerable extent, since raw material was often scarce or expensive; therefore many consumers (especially members of lower urban strata) were reliant on the use of second-hand commodities and materials until the nineteenth century. My study focuses on the retail of second-hand commodities during the seventeenth and eighteenth century in the towns of Salzburg and Vienna, but it also discusses findings from other European cities. The empirical part of the study is primarily based on archival sources, but also other forms of tradition were taken into consideration. The rather fragmentary record and the (partial) "invisibility" of market actors necessitated the combination of different types of sources (e.g. contemporary literature or depictions) and methods of reconstruction (qualitative as well as quantitative), which allowed to broaden the analysis - for example to locate individuals within their everyday socioeconomic contexts.Second-hand trade - in shops, stall or on institutionalised market places - formed an important source of income for the urban labouring poor being a temporary (supplementary and occasional) or a middle- or long-term activity, especially for females and members of ethnic or religious minorities. Formalisation and regulation within urban second-hand trade, also high entrance fees or numerical limits tended to exclude several actors from engaging in authorized second-hand trading. These exclusions evoked informal engagement that means activities of licensed and partially licensed as well as of unlicensed dealers - these informal trading activities don't seem marginal, but of a specific relevance for urban second-hand trade.Second-hand trade was undoubtedly dominated by less affluent elements that were often considered only barely respectable, problems like trading with stolen or infected goods fostered ambivalent or negative contemporary perceptions. Nevertheless, second-hand markets and traders formed a substantial and vital part of the urban economy during early modern times - their utilities with respect to household strategies and daily consumption were multiple: Used goods could usually be purchased at significantly lower prices than new commodities, at the same time the second-hand trade helped to convert "unnecessary" or dispensable belongings and commodities from bequests or insolvencies into cash. But second-hand trade was not just a necessity; it also created possibilities for economic management - "cheaper" second-hand goods could be purchased instead of newly manufactured commodities, in addition material belongings that were of a stable value and easily resold functioned as a non-monetary saving strategy. The consumption of used goods was very flexible and adoptable and formed - especially for members of lower urban strata - a basal element of everyday economy. Second-hand markets offered a broad range of products that were immediately available: especially clothing (since textiles embodied quite a high exchange value during the pre-industrial period), furniture and other goods of everyday use, but also scrap materials. Second-hand markets and traders were closely connected (both personally and spatially) t

Spital als Lebensform, Band 2

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ISBN: 9783205796398 Year: Pages: 720 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_574672 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 257
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-07 11:01:20
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The voluminous publication edits 203 such items covering all of the Austrian territories from the Late Middle Ages to the 19th century. Hospital rules, instructions for hospital staff, job descriptions, special rules as, for example, prayer orders and dietaries, but also inventories were meant to channel the way of life of inmates and staff. Each of the edited sources is accompanied by a survey on the history of the hospital and a comment contextualising the contents, which necessitated pioneering archival research in many cases where no serious scholarly treatment of the hospitals’ history was available.First volume: http://e-book.fwf.ac.at/o:799

Ungleiche Entwicklung in Zentraleuropa

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ISBN: 9783205796381 Year: Pages: 538 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_575226 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 214
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-12 11:01:12
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The Habsburg crownland Galicia was one of the poorest region of the Habsburg Monarchy and could in the 19th century only rudimentarily catch up with industrialization and income growth of other regions. The book shows how over the long run the unequal transregional entanglements, in particular concerning commodity trade, alongside with the imperial economic policy restrained Galicia’s economic development between 1772 and 1914.

Spital als Lebensform, Band 1

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ISBN: 9783205796398 Year: Pages: 430 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_574659 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 257
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-16 00:08:02
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The voluminous publication edits 203 such items covering all of the Austrian territories from the Late Middle Ages to the 19th century. Hospital rules, instructions for hospital staff, job descriptions, special rules as, for example, prayer orders and dietaries, but also inventories were meant to channel the way of life of inmates and staff. Each of the edited sources is accompanied by a survey on the history of the hospital and a comment contextualising the contents, which necessitated pioneering archival research in many cases where no serious scholarly treatment of the hospitals’ history was available.Second volume: http://e-book.fwf.ac.at/o:800

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