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Literatur in Österreich 1938-1945, Kärnten

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ISBN: 9783205786535 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437201 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4266
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:37
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The book is the second volume of an encyclopedic reference work that, as the result of basic research in literary studies, represents the first systematic attempt to provide comprehensive documentation of the literary life of Austria during the Nazi era (1938-1945); the first volume (Styria) was published in 2008. From its methodological approach, it is intended to make the literary events that took place within the official system of the Third Reich as promoted, or at least tolerated, by the decision-makers in the cultural industry more accessible, without resorting to limiting, biased attempts to define a canon. Materials will be presented for the analysis and interpretation of the genesis and effects of these events and institutions. For this reason, the study is based on a functional understanding of literature and has taken key institutional elements of the literary communication system into consideration: authors and their works (including radio and film writers), scholars of German studies, the decision-makers of cultural policy (promotion/censure, literary awards), literary associations, publishing houses and theaters, anthologies and periodicals. The total control of all public creative and media activities in the year 1938 through the Third Reich dictatorship rarely provides good sources for the testing of this method. Our systematic research of the phase between 1938 and 1945 intends to create the most comprehensive description possible of the institutions within the literary system and the integration of authors. Apart from printed material in files pertaining to individuals, we primarily scrutinized the contents of the National Archive Berlin / Division on National Socialism (BDC) and what is known as the Gauakten or District Files for this purpose (the vast majority of personal information related to authors was provided by the authors themselves). The most important archival basis for the description of the institutions are files from the National Archive Koblenz (now in the National Archive Berlin) and the Municipal and Provincial Archives of Vienna. In the survey of material, some of the events that transpired before and after the critical Nazi years were systematically included in order to draw attention to continuities and breaks. Especially significant were literary awards and honors, which illustrate the integration of writers in the various governments from the monarchy up through the Second Republic. For this reason, we have included all such prizes that are known. The first attempt to list all literary organizations in Austria and all German-language anthologies, in which Austrian texts were included, covers the period between 1933 and 1945. The subsequent period has been documented not only through literary awards and honors, but also through the inclusion of the so-called Gauakten in the Austrian National Archive (Österreichisches Staatsarchiv / Archiv der Republik). In order to explore the institutional factors of the literary sub-system in German-speaking regions, a new kind of handbook was created in accordance with this methodological approach, a combination of encyclopedia of persons and specialized dictionary, which should be combined in a network to form a whole. Another factor that led to this format was the division of Austria by the Nazis into seven divisions subject directly to the German government. The handbooks have thus been structured as follows: Part I: Encyclopedia of Persons is divided into several volumes based on the administrative divisions (Gaue) at the time. The second volume will focus on Carinthia. The alphabetically-ordered author entries will be preceded by a literary and historical introduction and an organizational diagram of the literary-political associations of the individual divisions as well as an overview of institutions in the Gau. A list of abbreviations and a list of sources will be included at the end of each volume. The volumes devoted to individual authors wi

Literatur in Österreich 1938-1945. Band 4: Wien

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ISBN: 9783205204923 Year: Pages: 968 Seiten Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund (FWF) - PUB 419
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:16

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The present book about Vienna is volume 4 of an encyclopedic reference work that, as the result of basic research in literary studies, represents the first systematic attempt towards a comprehensive documentation of the literary life of Austria during the Nazi era. From its methodological approach, it is intended to make the literary events that took place within the official system of the Third Reich as promoted, or at least tolerated, by the decision-makers in the cultural industry more accessible, without resorting to limiting, biased attempts to define a canon.

Geraubte Identität

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ISBN: 9783205784623 Year: Pages: 304 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437141 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4088
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:48:40
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Stolen identity - the forced "Germanization" of "racially valuable" children during National Socialism, illustrated by the country of Poland. Heinrich Himmler, acting in his capacity as “Reich Commissioner for the Strengthening of German Foldom”, ordered the selection of "racially valuable" polish children for "Germanization" – the Teutonic blood had to be collected even if it meant kidnapping children. For this reason polish children from orphanages, schools, forster parents, parents who refused to sign the “Volksliste” and parents who had been murdered or sent to forced labor or concentration camps had to have a "racial" examination – children who possessed the Nordic features were regarded as suitable for the “Germanization” and were distributed in special children homes. At these special children homes the children were forced to give up their own identity step by step: the children got new German names and had to learn German, moreover contact with relatives at home was painfully forbidden. In Austria, known as "Ostmark" during National Socialism, two special places were found, where polish children were confronted with "Germanization practices": the children home "Alpenland" in Oberweis next to Gmunden and the resettlement camp "Parsch" in Salzburg. After a "successful Germanization" the children were placed in German and Austrian forster families. There the children were treated in different ways: some children became a part of the family, they felt safety and comfortable and were treated like their own children. Other polish girls and boys were treated badly: the forster families took advantage of their defencelessness, they abused and beat the polish children, they reagard them just as cheap labourer. After the war only a small number of such kidnapped children was tracked by the several tracking services like UNRRA, IRO or the Polish Red Cross. But further problems arose when German and Austrian forster families or the children themselves opposed the repatriation to Poland. Being back in Poland, the polish children were regarded as children of the enemy – regarded as “German” of the polish society.

"... allerlei für die Nationalbibliothek zu ergattern..."

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ISBN: 9783205775041 Year: Pages: 617 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437148 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3835
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:48:46
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When Austria was annexed by Hitler Germany in March 1938, the National Library in Vienna was not only the biggest scientific library in the country, it was now the third largest in the German Reich. Its status among and influence on the scholarly libraries in the Reich was considerably enhanced by one person during the Nazi period, namely the newly-appointed director-general Dr. Paul Heigl, a fervent National socialist, Acquisitions by the Library during the years 1938 to 1945 are a key focal point of this history, and Heigl played both an active and significant role in the process of book looting in the interest of the National Library. The Library may well have regarded itself in the inter-war years as being „apolitical“ – and house historians have tended to reinforce this image – but this does not stand up to closer scrutiny even during the political period of the „Corporate State“ und Dollfuss and Schuschnigg, let alone during the time of national socialist rule in Austria. The study breaks with the previos taboos and presents the essentially political role of the Library both before and after March 1938 by investigating its involvement in the crimes of the Nazi regime. But the study does not only concentrate on acquisitions made through improper means, it also attempts to capture some of the atmosphere of a major library under the NS-regime and in war-time. The examination also sees itself as a contribution to the hitherto neglected history of libraries in Austria in the Nazi period in general and of church and official libraries in particular. It might be noted that Paul Heigl was not only in charge of scholary libraries in south-eastern Europe following the German invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, he was also a library consultant for local Nazi officials and had considerable sway in forging library policy. Our study discusses a number of chapters in the Library ´s history during the Nazi period which have so far been absent from official histories, primarily those which implicate the Library and point to the vast and varied acquisitions. The main chapter focusses on the development and acquisitions of the Library´s many collections from 1938 o 1945, chiefly on the basis of library records and files, and attempts to describe not only the looting, but also fate of stolen books, libraries and collections immediately after World War Two and on up to the present day. And, as the case may be, their subsequent restitution over the past few years as a consequence of the Art Restitution Law of 1998. Name and subject indices are intended to make the information in thistory more easily accessible.

Zwischen Krieg und Euthanasie

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ISBN: 9783205783213 Year: Pages: 342 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437180 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4079
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:19
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This publication describes in detail the preparation and realization of the forcibly sterilization of numerous women and men Vienna from 1940 to 1945. These forced sterilizations of individuals, being categorized as 'hereditary ill', were based on the 'Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring' (GzVeN). In Nazi Germany it took effect in January 1934, and until the outbreak of the war, when most of the court-proceedings had already ended, 300.000 women and men, had been forcibly sterilized. In January 1940 the law was implemented in the 'Ostmark', and at least 6.000 women and men had been forcibly sterilized during the war. In Vienna, the then second-largest city of the 'German Reich' 1.203 court-decisions in favour of a forcibly sterilization could be traced-back. These court-files of the 'Viennese Hereditary Health Court' (Erbgesundheitsgericht) became accessible for research only recently. The quantitative and qualitative analysis indicates three parameters for the implementation of the GzVeN in Vienna: First of all, the reduction of lawsuits to 'urgent' cases, i.e. persons of a 'particularly great danger of procreation'; secondly, the personal and structural restrictions resulting from war; and thirdly, the Nazi Euthanasia: Different from Nazi Germany the forced sterilizations had not been preceding the murder of disabled persons, but were rather implemented in the same period of time. Several doctors in Vienna were responsible for both, forced sterilizations and murder. Both judges and doctors of the 'Viennese Hereditary Health Court' were keen to contribute to the radical efforts to create the visional 'healthy national body' by fulfilling the GzVeN independent of the above mentioned parameters: they implemented a National Socialist tort-law, which included a surgical intervention with severe and lifelong psychical and physical consequences - against the will of the people who were affected. After the end of the war, the judges and doctors did not have to take any kind of responsibility for their decisions to sterilize people forcibly. This was not surprising, taking into account that the categorization of persons due to their 'value of hereditage' ('Erbwert') continued: Firstly, the then-chancellor Renner announced to pass a similar law when the GzVeN was repealed in Mai 1945; secondly, the forcibly sterilized women and men were partly acknowledged only in 1995 as victims of Nazi-persecution and fully acknowledged only 2005; and thirdly, until to the present, women, being categorized as 'disabled', are still sterilized without their knowledge and therefore without their consent. However, this bodily injury does not carry a penalty, since there is no contradiction to the so called 'good manners' ('gute Sitten'), incorporated in the criminal law.

Eigentum und Geschlecht

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ISBN: 9783205787518 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_453610 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4236
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-21 22:37:38
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This book examines the financial circumstances of Jewish men and women in Vienna from the turn of the century to 1938, focusing on gender as a social category. The central issue is the extent to which the amount and, above all, the category of assets were structured according to gender. Furthermore, the gender specifics of financial withdrawals by the National Socialists and restitution and compensation payments after 1945 shall be examined. Three subject areas will be carefully covered for the period before 1938, in which structured relevance is accorded to the category of gender. These are economic activity, which includes gainful employment and entrepreneurial activity, inheritance practices, and marriage as an influential financial factor. The study is based on a sample of 788 individuals (337 women, 451 men), who were affected by National Socialist proprietary measures, i.e. looting policy, in 1938. The sample was drawn for a study by the Austrian Historical Commission. It includes the assets of these 788 people on April 27, 1938 as they were recorded in the so-called assets declaration with which all people defined as Jewish had to declare their property to the authorities. The sample, which has been entered into a database, includes further data on restitution and compensation. This paper will evaluate the data in terms of gender for the first time. Moreover, the financial situation of 78 of the 788 individuals (Sample II) and their familial environment, in particular their parents and siblings, are researched through further sources including inheritance files, wills, marriage contracts, and commercial and land registers. One of the objectives is to investigate the origin of the assets declared in 1938. Based on the selection of individuals, which was dependent upon the existence of a minimum asset level, there are no significant differences between the asset volume of men and women from the sample. Nevertheless, the study points out that the composition of the assets, which means the occurrence and scope of different categories of assets, was determined by gender specific factors. Inheritance practices and segregated access to asset acquisition, particularly in economic activity, are identified as reasons for this. Gender specifics in real estate and business as well as asset transfers between generations and married couples are elaborated upon in detail. Dowries not only influenced the financial situation of the wife or widow and her husband, but also presented essential financial resources for companies. The possibility of economic activity and thereby acquisition of assets is of particular importance; this possibility is primarily decided in the family, as is shown in the individual case histories. Although gender specific differences can hardly be verified in National Socialist asset withdrawal, they can be documented in the National Socialists' approach to mixed couples. The restitution results are influenced by several factors; among these are also the claimed asset categories. In a comparative evaluation of men and women, the restitution results reflect the success of the respective asset categories.

Frauenleben in Prag

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ISBN: 9783205987598 Year: Pages: 450 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_472090 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3105
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2014-04-11 23:26:26
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The book aims to characterize twelve women who lived in Prague coming from different ethnic backgrounds, Czech Gentiles, German Gentiles, Czech Jews, and German Jews. The earliest is Magdalena Dobromila Rettigová in the late 18th century, the most recent Jiřina Šiklová (2014). Mostly on the hand of their own published but also unpublished writings, I want to deal with their lives, values, and the societies in which they lived.

Literatur in Österreich 1938-1945, Oberösterreich

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ISBN: 9783205795087 Year: Pages: 482 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_482373 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 110
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2014-12-04 09:02:26
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Dictionary of a province during the National Socialist era (“Oberdonau”), understood as a regional literary subsystem described in terms of the interaction of authors and literary institutions

Schlachtfelder

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ISBN: 9783205200659 Year: Pages: 946 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_594631 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 278
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-31 11:01:15
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Taking the province of Niederdonau as an example, this pioneer study highlights everyday fields-of-force between National Socialism and agrarian society in which rural actors competed for resources among themselves and with official functionaries. The megaproject of ‘volkish productivism’ – the creation of an efficient peasantry in ‘racial’ and economic terms – got stuck with regard to technical development. However, with regard to institutional development, there emerged a pathway towards an alternative modernity beyond Liberalism and Communism.

Der Opfermythos bei Elfriede Jelinek

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ISBN: 9783205203254 Year: Pages: 326 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_622219 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 391
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-14 11:01:21
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This paper presents a new, interdisciplinary method to adequately interpret Elfriede Jelinek’s texts, integrating contemporary historical theories of fascism, national-socialism and the Austrian victim myth into the exemplary literary analysis.

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