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19 Samhandling During Crisis Work (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch19 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"Samhandling is considered as a key solution when asymmetry occurs. An expectation of seamless samhandling can be a special challenge to High Reliability Organizations which have mechanistic traditions in common, i.e. an assumption of linearity and routine-based work. In this chapter, a model to operationalize samhandling is presented. This conceptual study is based on observational data from an inter-organizational exercise. A full-scale exercise of a train accident on the Öresund Bridge between Sweden and Denmark was observed. The overall goal of the exercise was to effectively solve the situation. However, different routines contributed to confusion and misunderstandings in the meeting on how to act. The exercise was dominated by a focus on linearity within the internal organizations, which hindered samhandling. In order to conceptualize samhandling, a three-level model is presented. It consists of “sequential samhandling”, i.e. a simplified, assembly-line type work process, “parallel samhandling”, i.e. carrying out tasks simultaneously, and “synchronous samhandling”, i.e. tasks performed at the same time in a spontaneous and natural way. A three-level samhandling model such as the one presented can be a useful tool for managing disasters."

17 Samhandling and Trust in Military Leadership Structures (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch17 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the importance of trust in military samhandling. Trust serves as one of the main prerequisites for effective collaboration (Kouzes & Posner, 2003). The Norwegian Armed Forces’ (NAF) core business is the planning and execution of military operations (Forsvarsstaben, 2014). One of the main tasks of the NAF is to plan for the unexpected and, ultimately, for war. The chapter further discuss trust in military leadership, and leadership and situational awareness. Leadership as a social interaction process that builds trust is discussed, and samhandling is seen in a military context. A basic “trust-based model” of samhandling is introduced and viewed in terms of internal and external framework factors. The chapter concludes that trust is still quite an open concept, and that trust is essential for the effective accomplishment of military missions. The basic trust model is an attempt to underline understanding of the importance of trust in a military planning and leadership context."

15 Competence for the Unforeseen (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 34 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch15 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"This study examines self-assessment of preparedness for unforeseen events and how it varies between groups and individuals according to roles and functions within an organization. The study has two objectives. The first is to analyse the relationship between general self-efficacy, perceived competence in demanding situations and social support, and based on this, to assess the efficiency of interaction (samhandling) in organizations and preparedness for the unforeseen. The second aim is to examine how these factors vary according to professional experience. A survey questionnaire was completed during winter 2016/2017. All 624 respondents were male or female employees of the Norwegian Armed Forces, based in different units, with different levels of competence, and included commissioned and non-commissioned officers, officer cadets and conscripts. The response rate was 77 percent, and a total of 810 personnel were approached. This study incorporates central concepts of individual and social resources that could permit the prediction and understanding of resilient behaviors in complex and demanding situations. Interaction was found to be the most important predictor of preparedness for the unforeseen. This study also shows that interaction combined with general self-efficacy and social support can account for a considerable proportion of the variance in preparedness for the unforeseen. The results indicate that it is possible to prepare for unforeseen events by implementing measures that improve social factors in particular."

13 Interaction and Risk Management in Shared Leadership (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 18 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch13 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The chapter presents a case from a government agency in Norway, where two assistant directors share a leadership position and must interact extensively. The main purpose is to highlight some benefits and challenges related to shared leadership when it comes to risk prevention and handling unforeseen events. The analysis is based on a relational perspective that emphasizes that successful interaction between people requires complementary skills, conceptualized as relational skills. The chapter concludes that the patterns of interaction and relational skills that develop during shared leadership can help prevent undesirable events. This is partly because shared leadership can provide increased capacity in identifying risks. Common experiences in handling risks and unforeseen events may contribute to learning that in turn provides the potential for further development of the interactional and relational skills in shared leadership. At the same time, shared leadership entails some risks that may impact on the prevention and handling of such events. For instance, interactional challenges that may arise in a shared leadership may prevent leaders from discovering potential hazards."

8 The Relevance of Samhandling in Military Doctrines (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 26 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch8 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"Military leaders are faced with high expectations when it comes to handling unforeseen situations in joint military operations. This chapter aims to present a nuanced professional and pedagogical discussion of how an increased awareness of the concept of samhandling in the use of military doctrines may contribute to the professionalization of military higher education. Different doctrines reflect different theoretical decisions. They are given relevance in education as a way to illustrate formal examples of what is preferred and what is rejected. As doctrines are built on experiences from real-life scenarios, as well as on predictions and strategies for possible change, they may serve as a way of balancing the branch-specific “hidden curriculum”, i.e. an established culture with a set of current values, behavior and thinking that have been developed over time in the organization. The findings in the current case study indicate that military doctrines are regarded as important in leadership training at the Norwegian Military Academy, especially when it comes to understanding and guiding samhandling in unforeseen and risk-oriented situations. However, at the same time, the terms used to describe samhandling in military doctrines found relevant in education at the Norwegian Military Academy are numerous, vague and somewhat overlapping. It seems crucial to raise awareness of the underlying processes and the relational ambition level that forms the basis of the chosen term. It is advantageous to reach a collective understanding of the kind of skills that need to be developed and trained. Another benefit of such analysis is to provide a basis for clarified learning goals and practical scenario development through exercises and other teaching plans in leadership education, as well as the evaluation of this, both in terms of learning outcomes and education as a whole."

7 Leading and Managing Interaction Under Risk in the Police (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 14 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch7 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"Leading interaction under risk is one of the aspects of being a leader in the police. After the 22nd of July 2011 Norwegian terror attacks it has been pointed out that the main explanatory factors as to why interaction under risk turned out as it did not necessarily was due to the lack of resources, previous evaluations or government plans but rather the lack of living up to these. In organisation theory, - psychology and management literature, it is customary to distinguish between expressed and actual ways to manage and lead, as well as between the structuralinstrumental and the institutional perspective. These strands of research address how the difference between general and overarching political aims and the execution of the same aims in practice neither may be neither uncommon nor unexpected. However, is it possible to expect more agreement between aims and actual behaviour? If so, what may some of the underlying conditions for leading learning from experience be? This chapter discusses what some of the underlying conditions for leading and managing learning from experience in the case of interaction under risk in the police may be. Specifically, conditions of learning located between the expressed and executed, that is, between the institutional and cultural."

6 Apprenticeship Learning in Preparation for Meeting the Unforeseen (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 34 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch6 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The chapter analyzes teaching where the goal is to enable students at the Armed Forces Staff College to master unforeseen events. The students are all participants in a program for joint operations in which different military branches are placed together to solve complex tasks. How can the supervisor contribute to increased samhandling when facing the unforeseen? The goal is for students to be able to cope with the roles that exist in a normal NATO headquarters and to learn how to use NATO’s operational planning strategy. The group supervisor becomes a form of master who greatly influences the approach of students to the training community. From a sample of one hundred students, five groups consisting of four to five students of both sexes, with varied defense-force affiliations, backgrounds and experience were selected to be interviewed. A total of 23 informants participated in the interviews. In addition, observations were carried out. Apprenticeship Learning as a method is appropriate to prepare the students better for samhandling in anticipation of the unforeseen. The way the supervisor manages his or her role has a great deal of impact on samhandling and learning outcomes. The supervisor’s insight and expertise in what is needed to make groups work together is decisive. Strengthening and developing samhandling in exercises is a suitable educational method for military forces in meeting unforeseen events, provided that it is done properly."

5 Human Interaction (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch5 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"During military exercises, crisis situations give the participants mood experiences. By exploring the concept of “mood”, our aim is to contribute to the development of new interaction theory. We will explore three perspectives related to mood and the possibility of changing mood: (1) A Mood-Based Perspective: Heidegger ascribes moods a fundamental role in human life. Before a human being can think or feel something, he or she is already attuned, already in a mood that structures how reality appears to them; (2) A Rhetorical Perspective: Even though Heidegger understands moods as a non-thematized horizon, our moods can nevertheless be changed. Here we elaborate on Aristotle’s ideas on rhetoric as the first systematic hermeneutics of the interacting, everyday human being; and (3) A Pedagogical Perspective: Pedagogy here refers to learning about the development of humans in society. An existential part of human existence is to sense moods and be attuned to “the other”. Then we have the possibility of changing the mood and establishing harmony. Finally, a conceptual model is presented to show the theoretical and practical implications beyond the military exercise that has been the point of departure for this text."

1 Samhandling Under Risk (SUR) (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch1 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The main objective of this chapter is to clarify some key and overall theoretical and conceptual frameworks underlying the research project “Samhandling Under Risk” (SUR), as discussed in the various chapters of this anthology. The overall research question is: What are the basic structures of the concept of samhandling under risk and how can samhandling be created when the conditions are unpredictable? This chapter explains in particular the terms “samhandling” (SAM), “the Unforeseen” (UN), “Risk” and “SUR structures”. Furthermore, these concepts are explored more deeply in relation to each other, which also frames the main approach of the anthology. As a basis, a specific understanding of “The Nature of the Unforeseen”, an expanded and customized Bow-tie Model, as well as a clarification of the boundaries enclosing the research field are compared to traditional risk analysis and training in what is already known and in dealing with probable threats. Although the individual studies reported in this anthology also have their own specific angles regarding these concepts and models, they have nevertheless been based on these. The core focus is also on learning in the light of organizational learning and SUR. The boundaries, challenges and the anthology’s focus on learning are also expressed in the more general and overall question: How can we as a society prepare ourselves for the unforeseen, the events and threats at the outer reaches of what we have trained for? A more indepth explanation about the background of this research project is also given in the preface of the anthology."

28 Basic Structures for a New Theory of Samhandling Under Risk (SUR) (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 22 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch28 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:07
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"This final chapter aggregates experiences and findings from the other chapters of the book. The book’s overall research question is as follows: What are the basic structures of the concept of samhandling under risk and how can samhandling be created when the conditions are unpredictable? A number of SUR (Samhandling Under Risk) structures are derived based on semantic theory construction, and these are described in an overall definition and visualized in a model, which in turn can form the basis of a SUR theory. These are organized under educational, organizational and operational structures, as three superior competencies needed to facilitate effective SUR. The essence is that there is a different basis for this type of assessment than with traditional risk analysis, in order to achieve good samhandling under risk and unforeseen conditions. This is concerned with what is needed when little or nothing goes according to plan. It is then necessary to emphasize on such matters more in depth and addition address other factors to achieve SUR through samhandling where the conditions are predictable - where completed plans and clear objectives work. For the learning level, valuation of inaccurate knowledge and qualities is required to extract information from the disorder. For the organizational level, it is important to create and/or maintain shared leadership and at the operative level, improvisation is essential. When working with a SUR paradigm, one must be able to accept unclear goals, be prepared to lose control and create room for surprises. Leaders with SUR skills will be required to prepare organizations for this. Training and SUR should be incorporated into strategic plans, management training and leadership development. An expansion of established pedagogical models is also needed to achieve this aim. Invisible learning is one approach. Samhandling does not simply happen in a vacuum, and the chapter encourages further SUR research in a global perspective, where different languages and cultures can contribute to enhanced understanding of SUR issues. As a starting point for such an approach, we explore how the term is expressed in the Japanese language. A more global approach to SUR structures can contribute to a deeper understanding of what is needed, to avoid unwanted misunderstandings and crises, learn from each other and solve complex and unforeseen situations through samhandling."

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2018 (13)