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24 Working Together in the Aftermath of an Unforeseen Event (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch24 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The frame of this chapter is how clinicians and leaders employed in psychiatric
departments in hospitals experience and cope with patients who commit
suicide while undergoing treatment. The major focus is the phenomenon which in
the Bow-tie model is called “stabilization”. To explore this phenomenon in an empirical
analysis, two concepts of samhandling are introduced, these being coordination
and cooperation. These two concepts are used in an interpretation of what eight
leaders and clinicians report on how they handle working together after a patient
during treatment in a psychiatric hospital has unexpectedly committed suicide.
The findings are that leaders and clinicians have different views on what stabilization
is. Stabilization to the leaders seems to be something they can handle by using
mandatory organizational procedures of coordination. To the clinicians (psychologists
and psychiatrists) however, stabilization is less straightforward. Professional
stabilization is, to them, more important than organizational stabilization, and it
requires another form of interaction – namely, cooperation. Cooperation is, in its
simplest and purest form, a symmetrical way of working together, based on equality
in competence and an unforced relation between the parties. For the purpose of
professional stabilization, this is the form of interaction preferred by the clinicians.
However, these findings are tentative and more research is needed to elaborate why
leaders and clinicians respond as they do after a patient suicide."

22 Learning from Sports (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch22 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"This study shows some generic characteristics from sports that are of relevance to
samhandling structures under risk. The findings are based on a case study of the
concept of “Total Football” and the Rosenborg Football Club (RBK) in Norway.
Football is a dynamic sport with several factors that come into play and where
flexible solutions are demanded. The case is also of relevance for organizations in
handling risk. RBK’s samhandling is based on “Total Football” and flow theory. In
analyzing RBK, we also apply theories of improvisation. RBK created a platform
that gave both direction to choices and a clear playing pattern. This platform further
ensured that tasks could be executed at high speed and high intensity, described as
“flow”. Flow contributed to both speed and precision in the playing pattern. It is
concluded that the following is relevant for other organizations: 1) Forming a deeper
understanding of samhandling and ensuring top management commitment; 2)
Creating, establishing and maintaining samhandling in a manner that suits the organization;
and 3) Minimal structures can be of great importance for organizations
in unforeseen and risky situations."

13 Interaction and Risk Management in Shared Leadership (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 18 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch13 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The chapter presents a case from a government agency in Norway, where
two assistant directors share a leadership position and must interact extensively. The
main purpose is to highlight some benefits and challenges related to shared leadership
when it comes to risk prevention and handling unforeseen events. The analysis
is based on a relational perspective that emphasizes that successful interaction between
people requires complementary skills, conceptualized as relational skills. The
chapter concludes that the patterns of interaction and relational skills that develop
during shared leadership can help prevent undesirable events. This is partly because
shared leadership can provide increased capacity in identifying risks. Common
experiences in handling risks and unforeseen events may contribute to learning
that in turn provides the potential for further development of the interactional and
relational skills in shared leadership. At the same time, shared leadership entails
some risks that may impact on the prevention and handling of such events. For
instance, interactional challenges that may arise in a shared leadership may prevent
leaders from discovering potential hazards."

3 Is It Possible to Prevent Unforeseen Events? (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch3 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"An unforeseen event may be defined as something that happens suddenly
and unexpectedly. Such events are seldom the result of an organisation’s operational
planning, but they can be side-effects of such planning. An unforeseen event may
have either positive or negative consequences. This chapter aims to discuss if it is
possible
to prevent unforeseen events. The major focus is on analysis and prevention
of unforeseen events with negative consequences, such as accidents, catastrophes
and acts of terror. Such events often take place in complex systems, and failures of
appropriate organisational interaction and communication among participants
with complementary competence in such systems may contribute to unforeseen
events. Risk-analysis methods and tools based on energy-barrier models, causal sequence
and process models, as well as information-processing models are presented
and their applicability to the prevention of unforeseen events is discussed. This also
includes the Bow-tie approach, as well as other approaches which take into consideration
organisational factors and social interaction (samhandling). The conclusion
is that unforeseen events can be prevented. However, in the aftermath of the implementation
of safety and security measures, it is not possible to know which events
they prevented, or to obtain knowledge about their efficiency. An additional strategy
for prevention of unforeseen events with negative consequences is proposed."

1 Samhandling Under Risk (SUR) (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch1 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The main objective of this chapter is to clarify some key and overall theoretical
and conceptual frameworks underlying the research project “Samhandling
Under Risk” (SUR), as discussed in the various chapters of this anthology. The overall
research question is: What are the basic structures of the concept of samhandling under
risk and how can samhandling be created when the conditions are unpredictable?
This chapter explains in particular the terms “samhandling” (SAM), “the Unforeseen”
(UN), “Risk” and “SUR structures”. Furthermore, these concepts are explored more
deeply in relation to each other, which also frames the main approach of the anthology.
As a basis, a specific understanding of “The Nature of the Unforeseen”, an expanded
and customized Bow-tie Model, as well as a clarification of the boundaries
enclosing the research field are compared to traditional risk analysis and training in
what is already known and in dealing with probable threats. Although the individual
studies reported in this anthology also have their own specific angles regarding these
concepts and models, they have nevertheless been based on these. The core focus is
also on learning in the light of organizational learning and SUR. The boundaries, challenges
and the anthology’s focus on learning are also expressed in the more general
and overall question: How can we as a society prepare ourselves for the unforeseen,
the events and threats at the outer reaches of what we have trained for? A more indepth
explanation about the background of this research project is also given in the
preface of the anthology."

23 Care Coordination, Samhandling and Patient Safety (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 22 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch23 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"This chapter focus on Norwegian healthcare policies and regulations for
care coordination and patient safety. The Norwegian Coordination Reform implemented
in 2012 emphasizes patient engagement, care pathways, and competence
development in municipal healthcare services. Moreover, protocols for division of
work tasks and collaboration between specialist and municipal healthcare services
are key aspects. The reform identifies fragmented health services and the lack of
coordinated care as main challenges. The authors introduce the concepts of care
coordination, continuity of care and patient handovers, and relate these to patient
safety. Results from a Norwegian observational study, identifying factors affecting
care coordination and patient safety in care transitions between hospital and municipal
care, are presented. Finally, the authors introduce relevant measures to improve
care coordination and patient safety, including the regulatory work and follow-up
of health services through nationwide audits performed by the Norwegian Board of
Health Supervision."

10 Weltbürger Perspectives and Samhandling (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 10 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch10 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"The chapter starts with a criticism of management and control concepts
that have been rooted in economic or psychological theories and models, although
society’s complexity and the pace of change will demand a broader and deeper foundation
for the development of effective management systems in the future. Other
voices need to be put forward. Immanuel Kant (1795/1991) argued for his idea of the
Weltbürger (“world citizen”), also known as “The Cosmopolitan Ideal”. His fundamental
philosophy is that all humans are welcome, regardless of time and place, and
that all humans are world citizens, regardless of nationality and cultural belonging
(Kant, 1795/1991). All people are co-citizens, independent of nationality and cultural
affiliation, and the Weltbürger is concerned with global problems and solutions.
Another central thinker is Jacques Derrida (1930–2004), a French philosopher and
writer particularly known for the term “Deconstruction”, which is about splitting up
words and phrases to find out what they really mean, in the light of the culture and
underlying attitudes. Human comprehension requires common words and phrases
(language), and a cultural and social context, both of which have formed the basis
for conceptual analysis of the terms “hospitality” and “threshold of tolerance”. The
conclusion is that the concepts of the Weltbürger and “hospitality” have important
values in and of themselves, and are ideas that are universal and timeless, providing
an important compass for samhandling."

9 Digital Samhandling in Education for the Unforeseen Future (Book chapter)

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch9 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"This chapter aims to discuss whether digital interaction (samhandling) in
education requires a new pedagogy, which, to a greater extent than before, takes into
account risks and unforeseen events. The major focus is on digital samhandling between
teachers and students. Future education should prepare students for a world
in which samhandling between individuals is predicted to be increasingly digital. At
the same time, teachers currently refrain from using digital tools in order to interact
pedagogically with students. A “mixed methods” survey of 96 randomly-chosen
schoolteachers in primary and secondary schools in Norway shows that the respondents
give various reasons for using Learning Management Systems (LMS) to a greater
extent for administrative purposes than for pedagogical ones. The main obstacle
is that teachers do not know exactly how digital samhandling should be facilitated
educationally and what the consequences may be for the students and education in
general. The conclusion is that the future is unknown, and the unforeseen is partly
learned through teachers’ professional judgment. Therefore, “new” pedagogy need
not necessarily consist of more educational models and theories of “what works.”
Perhaps the “new” pedagogy should be, to a greater extent, based on samhandling
literacy and problem-based learning?"

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2018 (8)