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The Search for Biological Active Agent(s) From Actinobacteria

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455676 Year: Pages: 312 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-567-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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There is a large market demand for new drugs. The existing chronic or common ailments without cures, development of new diseases with unknown causes, and the widespread existence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, have driven this field of research further by looking at all potential sources of natural products. To date, microbes have made a significant contribution to the health and well-being of people globally. The discoveries of useful metabolites produced by microbes have resulted in a significant proportion of pharmaceutical products in today’s market. Therefore, the investigation and identification of bioactive compound(s) producing microbes is always of great interest to researchers.

Actinobacteria are one of the most important and efficient groups of natural metabolite producers. Among the numerous genera, Streptomyces have been recognized as prolific producers of useful natural compounds, as they provide more than half of the naturally-occurring antibiotics isolated to-date and continue to emerge as the primary source of new bioactive compounds. Certainly, these potentials have attracted ample research interest and a wide range of biological activities have been subsequently screened by researchers with the utilization of different In vitro and In vivo model of experiments. Literature evidence has shown that a significant number of interesting compounds produced by Actinobacteria were exhibiting either strong anticancer or neuroprotective activity. The further in depth studies have then established the modulation of apoptotic pathway was involved in those observed bioactivities. These findings indirectly prove the biopharmaceutical potential possessed by Actinobacteria and at the same time substantiate the importance of diverse pharmaceutical evaluations on Actinobacteria. In fact, many novel compounds discovered from Actinobacteria with strong potential in clinical applications have been developed into new drugs by pharmaceutical companies. Together with the advancement in science and technology, it is predicted that there would be an expedition in discoveries of new bioactive compounds producing Actinobacteria from various sources, including soil and marine sources. In light of these current needs, and great interest in the scope of this research, this book seeks to contribute on the investigation of different biological active compound(s) producing actinobacteria which are exhibiting antimicrobial, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anticancer activities and similar.

Phenotypic screening in the 21st century

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194698 Year: Pages: 67 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-469-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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In the genomic era of 1990s-2000s, pharmaceutical research moved to target-based drug discovery which enabled development of a number of small molecule drugs against a wide range of diseases. In many cases however, drugs that arose from genomics failed, questioning the validity of the targets and the suitability of target-based drug discovery as an optimal strategy for all disease states. For monogenic diseases, target-based approaches may be well-suited to the identification of novel therapies. Most diseases, however, are caused by a combination of several genetic and environmental factors and are likely to require simultaneous modulation of multiple molecular targets/pathways for successful treatment. For such diseases, reductionist approaches focusing on individual targets rather than biological networks are unlikely to succeed and new drug development strategies are required. In search of more successful approaches, the pharmaceutical industry is moving towards phenotypic screening beyond individual genes/targets. However, this requires rethinking of diseases and drug discovery approaches from a network and systems biology perspective. Since returning to the pre-genomics era of screening drug candidates in laborious animal models is not a feasible solution, the industry needs to evolve a new paradigm of phenotypic drug discovery within the context of systems biology. Such a paradigm must combine physiologically and disease relevant biological substrates with sufficient throughput, operational simplicity and statistical vigour. Biomarker strategies for translational medicine, as well as preclinical safety and selectivity assessments, would also need to be revised to adapt to the target agnostic style. This focused issue aims to discuss strategies, key concepts and technologies related to systems-based approaches in drug development. Design and implementation of innovative biological assays, featuring multiple target strategies, and rational drug design in the absence of target knowledge during the early drug discovery are illustrated with examples. Specific topics include: • The need for systems-based approaches in drug development • Phenotypic screening strategies • Compound libraries (natural product inspired compound collections) • Target deconvolution and identification • Target agnostic lead discovery and optimization • Multi-target approaches and decoding the phenotype (understanding biological interactions and multiscale systems modelling) • Translational aspects • Early evaluation of selectivity and safety in a target agnostic manner

Computational and Experimental Approaches in Multi-Target Pharmacology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452521 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-252-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The next frontier in pharmacology is the development of multi-target strategies in which pathological processes are controlled by pharmacologically manipulating them at many different points at once. Designing multi-target strategies will require deep understanding of the complex physiology that underlies pathological processes. It will also require the development of single drugs with multiple targets, or combinations of drugs with compatible pharmacokinetics that work synergistically to maximize desirable effects while minimizing unwanted side effects. This e-Book contains ten original articles, each addressing a different aspect of this challenge. Together they open new perspectives and show the way forward in the development of multi-target therapeutics.

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