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Undergraduate Education for Public Health in the United States

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196111 Year: Pages: 81 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-611-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Undergraduate programs in public health are growing rapidly. At colleges and universities throughout the United States, both the number of programs and the number of students have expanded greatly in the past decade. In response to this trend, the Council for Education of Public Health (CEPH) has begun to accredit undergraduate public health programs, with the first programs approved in 2014. Around the country programs exhibit wide variation, from concentrations in liberal arts colleges to pre-clinical foundations at doctorate-granting universities to undergraduate programs in accredited schools of public health. Faculty, both new and seasoned, are fully aware of the need to integrate undergraduate education in public health with graduate education—but the roadmaps of exactly how to do so are still nascent. The purpose of this Research Topic is to gather articles describing this variation, with the intent that the collective body of work will facilitate analysis and discussion of what makes a quality education and builds a competent workforce.

Precision Public Health

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455010 Year: Pages: 149 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-501-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Precision Public Health is a new and rapidly evolving field, that examines the application of new technologies to public health policy and practice. It draws on a broad range of disciplines including genomics, spatial data, data linkage, epidemiology, health informatics, big data, predictive analytics and communications. The hope is that these new technologies will strengthen preventive health, improve access to health care, and reach disadvantaged populations in all areas of the world. But what are the downsides and what are the risks, and how can we ensure the benefits flow to those population groups most in need, rather than simply to those individuals who can afford to pay? This is the first collection of theoretical frameworks, analyses of empirical data, and case studies to be assembled on this topic, published to stimulate debate and promote collaborative work.

Keywords

public health --- precision --- technology --- data --- GIS --- equity --- ethics --- prevention --- policy

Educating the Global Workforce for Public Health

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454471 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-447-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Good quality management of the health system demands a critical mass of health professionals with sound technical knowledge. The education that produces a workforce of appropriate size and skills is often a challenge in the delivery of quality health services. Incidentally, health professionals’ education has not kept pace with the new emerging challenges. Recent globalization of health has further led to international migration of health professionals, thereby leading to cross-border recognition of health workers with an appropriate skill-mix, knowledge, and competence. The Lancet Commission Report of 2010 highlighted the need to develop a common strategy at a global level for postgraduate medical, nursing, and public health education that reaches beyond the confines of national borders and the silos of individual professions. This vision would require a series of instructional and institutional reforms, which should be guided by two proposed outcomes: transformative learning and interdependence in education. The purpose of this Research Topic is to increase the shared understanding of the current status of the education of the health workforce around the globe, particularly those working in the public health sector. With this foundation, further research and evaluation studies can then be done with a perspective that addresses global workforce issues impacting access, prevention, and care.

Global health issues of aflatoxins in food and agriculture: Challenges and opportunities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195442 Year: Pages: 113 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-544-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Medicine (General) --- Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Aflatoxins are a group of polyketide mycotoxins that are produced mainly by members of the genus Aspergillus. Production of these toxic secondary metabolites is closely related to fungal development (Keller et al., 2005; Jamali et al., 2012). Contamination of food, feed and agricultural commodities by aflatoxins poses enormous economic and serious health concerns because these chemicals are highly carcinogenic and can directly influence the structure of DNA. The resulting genetic defects can lead to fetal misdevelopment and miscarriages; aflatoxins are also known to suppress immune systems (Razzaghi-Abyaneh et al., 2013). In a global context, aflatoxin contamination is a constant concern between the 35N and 35S latitude where developing countries are mainly situated. With expanding boundaries of developing countries, aflatoxin contamination has become a persistent problem to those emerging areas (Shams-Ghahfarokhi et al., 2013). The continuing threat by aflatoxin contamination of food, feed and agricultural commodities to the world population has made aflatoxin research one of the most exciting and rapidly developing study areas of microbial toxins. The present research topic includes six review articles, three mini reviews and four original research articles. Contributors highlight current global health issues arising from aflatoxins and aflatoxigenic fungi and cover important aspects of aflatoxin research including contamination of crops, epidemiology, molecular biology and management strategies. Special attention is given to fungus-plant host interactions, biodiversity and biocontrol, sexual recombination in aflatoxigenic aspergilli, potential biomarkers for aflatoxin exposure in humans and safe storage programs.

Dual-Use Life Science Research and Biosecurity in the 21st Century: Social, Technical, Policy, and Ethical Challenges

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195688 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-568-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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In September 2011, scientists announced new experimental findings that would not only threaten the conduct and publication of influenza research, but would have significant policy and intelligence implications. The findings presented a modified variant of the H5N1 avian influenza virus (hereafter referred to as the H5N1 virus) that was transmissible via aerosol between ferrets. These results suggested a worrisome possibility: the existence of a new airborne and highly lethal H5N1 virus that could cause a deadly global pandemic. In response, a series of international discussions on the nature of dual-use life science arose. These discussions addressed the complex social, technical, political, security, and ethical issues related to dual-use research. This Research Topic will be devoted to contributions that explore this matrix of issues from a variety of case study and international perspectives.

Zika Virus: What Have We Learnt Since the Start of the Recent Epidemic?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454808 Year: Pages: 253 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-480-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Internal medicine --- Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The considerable number of viral infectious disease threats that have emerged since the beginning of the 21st century have shown the need to dispose global and coordinated responses to fight properly and efficiently against them. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (2003), avian influenza in humans (2005), A(H1N1) pandemic influenza (2009), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (2012 onward) and Ebola virus disease (2014-2015) are some of the most important examples. The latest emerging and devastating threat was Zika virus, an arbovirus that provoked more than 500,000 suspicious cases in the Americas in 2016 and notable processes of social and medical alarms due to the evidence of a causal link between Zika virus and several congenital injuries, like microcephaly, as well as due to its association with neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults (PAHO, 2017). In the framework of this global response and multistrategic approach, the purpose of this Research Topic is to provide updated information and novel researches about control strategies, encompassing virological, entomological and epidemiological data, in order to reach the triad of protagonists of transmission cycles (virus, mosquitoes and humans).

Human and Animal Models for Translational Research on Neurodegeneration: Challenges and Opportunities From South America

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454945 Year: Pages: 217 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-494-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Neurodegenerative diseases are the most frequent cause of dementia, representing a burden for public health systems (especially in middle and middle-high income countries). Although most research on this issue is concentrated in first-world centers, growing efforts in South America are affording important breakthroughs. This emerging agenda poses new challenges for the region but also new opportunities for the field. This book aims to integrate the community of experts across the globe and the region, and to establish new challenges and developments for future investigation. We present research focused on neurodegenerative research in South America. We introduce studies assessing the interplay among genetic, neural, and behavioral dimensions of these diseases, as well as articles on vulnerability factors, comparisons of findings from various countries, and works promoting multicenter and collaborative networking. More generally, our book covers a broad scope of human-research approaches (behavioral assessment, neuroimaging, electromagnetic techniques, brain connectivity, peripheral measures), animal methodologies (genetics, epigenetics, proteomics, metabolomics, other molecular biology tools), species (all human and non-human animals, sporadic, and genetic versions), and article types (original research, review, and opinion papers). Through this wide-ranging proposal, we hope to introduce a fresh approach to the challenges and opportunities of research on neurodegeneration in South America.

Today’s Nutrition and Tomorrow’s Public Health: Challenges and Opportunities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198184 Year: Pages: 83 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-818-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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At the dawn of the third millennium, we are confronted with a disturbing phenomenon: although global life expectancy still increases, this is not the case for healthy life expectancy! The explanation of this seemingly contradiction is mainly due to the rising prevalence of the new pandemia of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Even in low and middle income countries, the improvement in healthcare status and life expectancy is paralled by the increase of NCDs, as in all countries worldwide. Since the United Nations General Assembly held in New York in 2011, many publications have emphasized the close link between NCDs and nutrition. The NCDs epidemic forces us to reconsider the public health perspectives. Many governments, non-governmental organizations and other institutions are actively involved in educational nutrition programs and campaigns; however their efforts seldom obtain the results hoped for. It is extremely difficult to induce changes in lifestyle and behavior that have built up over a long period of time. However, it becomes urgent to adapt to our changing life-environment where traditional wisdom and intuitive choices are giving way to individual thinking and search for (often uncontrolled) information. This engenders a number of unprecedented challenges and it calls for a re-appraisal of the existing paradigms to achieve an adequate management of the upstream determinants of health instead of a (pre)dominant medical and hospital-centric approach. In the era of personalized healthcare, it is time to empower policy makers, professionals and citizens for achieving an evidence-based change in the health-disease interface and decision-making process for public health interventions. The scientific and professional society Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) has recognized nutrition as a health technology by creating a Interest Group (IG) dedicated to research on methodologies and assessments of nutrition-related public health, while taking into account contextual factors (ethical, legal, social, organizational, economic, ...) in order to generate meaningful outcomes for establishing evidence-based health policies. This Research Topic aims to elaborate on some of the potential hurdles which have to be overcome for the sake of sustainable healthcare provisions anywhere in the world, such as shortcomings in methodological approaches, regulatory frameworks, gaps between evidence, its hierarchy and final recommendations for public health management.

Leading people - managing organizations: Contemporary public health leadership

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197262 Year: Pages: 82 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-726-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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In this Research Topic, we provide a comprehensive overview of current public health leadership research, focusing on understanding the impact of leadership on the delivery of public health services. By bringing together ground-breaking research studies detailing the development and validation of leadership activities and resources that promote effective public health practice in a variety of settings, we seek to provide a basis for leading public health organizations. We encouraged contributions that assess the effectiveness of public health leaders, as well as critical discussions of methods for improving the leadership of public health organizations at all levels. Both ongoing and completed original research was welcome, as well as methods, hypothesis and theory, and opinion papers. The effective practice of public health leadership is a key concept for public health practitioners to clearly understand as the 21st century unfolds. Following the significant lapses of leadership in the for-profit world, leaders in governmental and not-for-profit agencies are required to learn by their failed examples. A major task facing all current and prospective public health practitioners is developing the required leadership skills in order to be effective twenty first century leaders. As a consequence of the rapidly evolving health of the public, as well as the development of the discipline and practice of public health, understanding the principles and attributes of leadership are now required of all public health practitioners. Leadership can be described in a variety of ways. Leadership in public health requires skillful individuals meeting the health challenges of communities and the population as a whole. Leadership may be defined as a process that occurs whenever an individual intentionally attempts to influence another individual or group, regardless of the reason, in an effort to achieve a common goal which may or may not contribute to the success of the organization. Thus leadership is a process involving two or more people. The nature of leadership is an important aspect of the concept as a whole. Submissions relating public health leadership to the management of public health organizations were welcomed. This Research Topic provided the opportunity for authors to consider the concept of leadership from a variety of approaches. Original research papers considering a variety of leadership theories provide methodological approaches to the topic. Hypothesis and theory papers provide the basis for application of leadership to public health practice. Opinion papers provide the opportunity to develop thinking concerning practice of public health leadership.

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