Search results: Found 12

Listing 1 - 10 of 12 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Lateralization and cognitive systems

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194117 Year: Pages: 314 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-411-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Left-right asymmetries of structure and function are a common organization principle in the brains of humans and non-human vertebrates alike. While there are inherently asymmetric systems such as the human language system or the song system of songbirds, the impact of structural or functional asymmetries on perception, cognition and behavior is not necessarily limited to these systems. For example, performance in experimental paradigms that assess executive functions such as inhibition, planning or action monitoring is influenced by information processing in the bottom-up channel. Depending on the type of stimuli used, one hemisphere can be more efficient in processing than the other and these functional cerebral asymmetries have been shown to modulate the efficacy of executive functions via the bottom-up channel. We only begin to understand the complex neuronal mechanisms underlying this interaction between hemispheric asymmetries and cognitive systems. Therefore, it is the aim of this Research Topics to further elucidate how structural or functional hemispheric asymmetries modulate perception, cognition and behavior in the broadest sense.

Protein Phosphorylation in Health and Disease

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199006 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-900-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Protein phosphorylation is one of the most abundant reversible post-translational modifications in eukaryotes. It is involved in virtually all cellular processes by regulating protein function, localization and stability and by mediating protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, aberrant protein phosphorylation is implicated in the onset and progression of human diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years, tens of thousands of in vivo phosphorylation events have been identified by large-scale quantitative phospho-proteomics experiment suggesting that a large fraction of the proteome might be regulated by phosphorylation. This data explosion is increasingly enabling the development of computational approaches, often combined with experimental validation, aiming at prioritizing phosphosites and assessing their functional relevance. Some computational approaches also address the inference of specificity determinants of protein kinases/phosphatases and the identification of phosphoresidue recognition domains. In this context, several challenging issues are still open regarding phosphorylation, including a better understanding of the interplay between phosphorylation and allosteric regulation, agents and mechanisms disrupting or promoting abnormal phosphorylation in diseases, the identification and modulation of novel phosphorylation inhibitors, and so forth. Furthermore, the determinants of kinase and phosphatase recognition and binding specificity are still unknown in several cases, as well as the impact of disease mutations on phosphorylation-mediated signaling. The articles included in this Research Topic illustrate the very diverse aspects of phosphorylation, ranging from structural changes induced by phosphorylation to the peculiarities of phosphosite evolution. Some also provide a glimpse into the huge complexity of phosphorylation networks and pathways in health and disease, and underscore that a deeper knowledge of such processes is essential to identify disease biomarkers, on one hand, and design more effective therapeutic strategies, on the other.

Extinction Learning from a Mechanistic and Systems Perspective

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199082 Year: Pages: 277 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-908-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Throughout their lifetime, animals learn to associate stimuli with their consequences. Following memory acquisition and consolidation, circumstances may arise that necessitate that initially learned behaviour is no longer relevant. The ensuing process is called extinction learning and involves a novel and complex learning procedure that involves a large number of neural entities. While the neural fundaments of the initial acquisition are well studied, our understanding of the behavioural and neural basis of extinction is still limited and derives mostly from rodent data acquired through fear conditioning paradigms. Fear conditioning and extinction in rodents is a spectacularly successful paradigm within behavioral neuroscience. However, in recent years, new approaches have been emerging that examine the mechanisms of extinction learning in different setting that also involve appetitive models, a broader comparative perspective, a focus on other brain systems, an examination of hormonal factors, and conditioning of immune responses. Only a broader analysis of the neural fundaments of extinction learning will finally uncover shared and distinct mechanisms that underlie extinction learning in different functional systems. The papers compiled in this Research Topic offer new and valuable insights into the mechanisms and functional implementation of extinction learning at its different levels of complexity, and form the basis for new concepts and research ideas in this field.

From Sex Differences in Neuroscience to a Neuroscience of Sex Differences: New Directions and Perspectives

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196890 Year: Pages: 199 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-689-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This research topic aims to integrate scattered findings on sex differences in neuroscience into a broader theory of how the human brain is shaped by sex and sex hormones in order to cause the great variety of sex differences that are commonly observed. It can be assumed that these differences didn’t occur arbitrarily, but that they rather determined and still determine evolutionary success of individuals and were shaped by the processes of natural and in particular sexual selection. Therefore, sex differences are not negligible and sex difference research cannot be discriminating against one sex or the other. In fact a better understanding of the underlying causes of sex differences has great advantages for both men and women and society as a whole, not only in terms of health care, but in every aspect of life. Gender equality can only work out if it is equally well understood for men and women what their individual resources and needs are. Therefore, it is of great importance to pave the way for identifying the underlying principles of structural and functional brain organization that cause men and women to act, think and feel differently. To this end it is of particular interest to identify possible similarities and interrelations between sex differences that did so far stand separately, in order to investigate whether they share a common source. To understand, where a specific sex difference comes from and whether or not it is caused by the same principle as other sex differences, it is necessary to explicitly link sex differences in behavior to their neuronal correlates and vice versa link sex differences in brain structure and function to their behavioral outcomes. In particular a new understanding of male and female brain functioning may arise from findings on how sex hormones interact with various neurotransmitter systems. In the past few years several findings demonstrated that women’s behavior is influenced by the sex hormone fluctuations they experience naturally during their menstrual cycle to the extent that sex differences may only be detectable in one cycle phase but not another. The study of menstrual cycle dependent effects gives important hints about which sex differences are activational and which are organizational. Additionally it only recently came to attention, that hormonal contraception may alter a women’s mood, cognition and behavior as a consequence of changes in brain structure and function. The underlying mechanisms are so poorly understood that it is even hard to predict, whether hormonal contraception will mask or amplify sex differences in a given task. Since the oral hormonal contraceptive pill is meanwhile used by 100 million women worldwide and even by teenagers whose brains are not yet fully developed, the question of how the synthetic steroids contained in hormonal contraceptives act on the brain is to be studied hand in hand with naturally occurring sex differences. This topic summarizes the current state of the art in sex difference research and gives new perspectives in terms of hypothesis generation an methodology. Both are necessary to gain a complete picture of what it is that makes a brain male or female and move towards a neuroscience of sex differences.

State-of-the-Art Research on C1q and the Classical Complement Pathway

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450589 Year: Pages: 100 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-058-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

C1q is the target recognition protein of the classical complement pathway and a major connecting link between innate and acquired immunity. As a charge pattern recognition molecule of innate immunity, C1q can engage a broad range of ligands derived from self, non-self and altered self via its heterotrimeric globular (gC1q) domain and thus trigger the classical complement pathway. The trimeric gC1q signature domain has been identified in a variety of non-complement proteins that can be grouped together as a C1q family. C1q circulates in serum as part of the C1 complex, in association with a catalytic tetrameric assembly of two homologous yet distinct serine proteases, C1r and C1s. Binding of C1q to appropriate targets leads to sequential activation of C1r and C1s, the latter being able to cleave complement components C4 and C2 thereby triggering the complement cascade. Activation of the classical pathway plays an important role in innate immune protection against pathogens and damaged elements from self. However, its involvement has been shown in various pathologies including ischemia-reperfusion injury and hereditary angioedema. Unexpected roles for the classical pathway have also been discovered recently, linked to both physiological and pathological aspects of development, including brain and cancer cells. These new perspectives should arouse renewed interest in a search for specific inhibitors of the classical pathway. In addition, C1q has recently been shown to have a number of functions that are independent of the activation of the classical pathway. This research topic is aimed at providing a state-of-the-art overview of the classical pathway, including, but not restricted to emerging functions of C1q and of the C1 complex, as well as pathological consequences of C1 activation or of the presence of anti-C1q autoantibodies . Contributions are included in the areas such as structural basis of C1q ligand recognition, C1q family proteins, inhibitors of the classical pathway identified in pathogens and improved derived inhibitors, structural determinants of the substrate specificities of C1r and C1s, elucidation of the architecture of C1, structural and functional homology of C1 with the initiating complexes of the lectin complement pathway, and novel involvement of C1q in processes such as ageing, cancer, synaptic pruning, and pregnancy.

The causes and consequences of microbial community structure

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193615 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-361-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The causes and consequences of differences in microbial community structure, defined here as the relative proportions of rare and abundant organisms within a community, are poorly understood. Articles in "The Causes and Consequences of Microbial Community Structure", use empirical or modeling approaches as well as literature reviews to enrich our mechanistic understanding of the controls over the relationship between community structure and ecosystem processes. Specifically, authors address the role of trait distributions and tradeoffs, species-species interactions, evolutionary dynamics, community assembly processes and physical controls in affecting ‘who’s there’ and ‘what they are doing’.

Hybrid Solutions for the Modelling of Complex Environmental Systems

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450558 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-055-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Systems studied in environmental science, due to their structure and the heterogeneity of the entities composing them, often exhibit complex dynamics that can only be captured by hybrid modeling approaches. While several concurrent definitions of “hybrid modeling” can be found in the literature, it is defined here broadly as the approach consisting in coupling existing modelling paradigms to achieve a more accurate or efficient representation of systems. The need for hybrid models generally arises from the necessity to overcome the limitation of a single modeling technique in terms of structural flexibility, capabilities, or computational efficiency. This book brings together experts in the field of hybrid modelling to demonstrate how this approach can address the challenge of representing the complexity of natural systems. Chapters cover applied examples as well as modeling methodology.Systems studied in environmental science, due to their structure and the heterogeneity of the entities composing them, often exhibit complex dynamics that can only be captured by hybrid modeling approaches. While several concurrent definitions of “hybrid modeling” can be found in the literature, it is defined here broadly as the approach consisting in coupling existing modelling paradigms to achieve a more accurate or efficient representation of systems. The need for hybrid models generally arises from the necessity to overcome the limitation of a single modeling technique in terms of structural flexibility, capabilities, or computational efficiency. This book brings together experts in the field of hybrid modelling to demonstrate how this approach can address the challenge of representing the complexity of natural systems. Chapters cover applied examples as well as modeling methodology.

Role of Silicon in Plants

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453528 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-352-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Silicon (Si) is gaining increased attention in the farming sector because of its beneficial effects observed in several crop species, particularly under stress conditions. The magnitude of benefits is predominantly observed in plant species that can accumulate Si above a certain threshold. Therefore, deciphering the molecular mechanisms and genetic factors conferring a plant ability to take up silicon is necessary. Along these lines, several efforts have been made to identify the specific genes regulating Si uptake and distribution in plant tissues. This information finds its usefulness in identifying Si-competent species, and could eventually lead to improving this ability in low-accumulating species. The successful exploitation of Si in agriculture depends highly on the understanding of different Si properties including plant-available Si from the soil, transport within tissues, deposition in planta, and Si effect on different metabolic and physiological processes. In addition, a better comprehension of external factors influencing Si uptake and deposition in plant tissue remains important. A plant can take up Si efficiently only in the form of silicic acid and most soils, despite containing high concentrations of Si, are deficient in plant-available Si. Consequently, soil amendment with fertilizers rich in plant-available Si is now viewed as an affordable option to protect plants from the biotic and abiotic stresses and achieve more sustainable cropping management worldwide. Articles compiled in the present research topic touch upon several aspects of Si properties and functionality in plants. The information will be helpful to further our understanding of the role of Si and contribute to exploit the benefits plants derive from it.

Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Extracellular Calcium-Sensing Receptor

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455126 Year: Pages: 189 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-512-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Calcium is vital for human physiology; it mediates multiple signaling cascades, critical for cell survival, differentiation, or death both as first and as second messenger. The role of calcium as first messenger is mediated by the G-protein coupled receptor, the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). The CaSR is a multifaceted molecule that senses changes in the concentration of a wide variety of environmental factors including di- and trivalent cations, amino acids, polyamines, and pH. In calcitropic tissues with obvious roles in calcium homeostasis such as parathyroid, kidney, and bone it regulates circulating calcium concentrations. The germline mutations of the CaSR cause parathyroid disorders demonstrating the importance of the CaSR for the maintenance of serum calcium homeostasis. The CaSR has an important role also in a range of non-calcitropic tissues, such as the intestine, lungs, central and peripheral nervous system, breast, skin and reproductive system, where it regulates molecular and cellular processes such as gene expression, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis; as well as regulating hormone secretion and lactation.This Research Topic is an overview of the CaSR and its molecular signaling properties together with the various organ systems where it plays an important role. The articles highlight the current knowledge regarding many aspects of the calcitropic and non-calcitropic physiology and pathophysiology of the CaSR.

Frontiers in Synaptic Plasticity: Dendritic Spines, Circuitries and Behavior

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199471 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-947-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry --- Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The term “synaptic plasticity” is a broad concept, which is studied with a variety of experimental approaches. One focus is the impact of changes in synaptic, neuronal and glial morphology on brain circuitry and behavior. In this regard, unique animal models have been key to the study of affective and social behaviors and neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, there is a paucity of compilations directed toward the correlation of alterations in synaptic structure with various physiological and behavioral paradigms. This Frontiers Research Topic will, therefore, serve as an exciting forum for the exchange of novel hypotheses and data and an important resource and reference for investigators studying synaptic and brain plasticity, as well as those in related fields.

Listing 1 - 10 of 12 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (12)


License

CC by (12)


Language

english (12)


Year
From To Submit

2018 (1)

2017 (2)

2016 (5)

2015 (4)