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Relevance of Translational Regulation on Plant Growth and Environmental Responses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454136 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-413-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Plants, as sessile organisms, are exposed to a large array of challenging external and internal alterations that may restrict plant growth. These limiting growth conditions activate plant signalling responses which eventually target the protein synthesis machinery to rapidly reprogram plant metabolism to adapt to the new situation. Thus, the control of mRNA translation is one key regulatory step of gene expression and it is an essential molecular mechanism used by plants to bring about impressive growth plasticity. Compared to the vast number of studies aimed to identify plant transcriptional changes upon hormonal or environmental cues, the subsequent steps of mRNA transport, stability, storage, and eventually translational regulation, have been less studied in plants. This lack of knowledge concerns not only the fate of protein-coding transcripts in plants, but also the biogenesis and maturation of rRNAs, tRNAs and the plant translation factors involved. In this eBook we have focused on how internal cues and external signals of either biotic or abiotic origin impact translation to adjust plant growth and development. We have collected altogether ten scientific contributions to extend the knowledge on plant post-transcriptional and translational events that regulate the production of proteins that execute the required cellular functions. We hope that this compilation of original research articles and reviews will provide the readers with a detailed update on the state of knowledge in this field, and also with additional motivation to improve plant growth adaptation to future environmental challenges.

Refining Prevention: Genetic and Epigenetic Contributions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198085 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-808-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Currently, most prevention efforts are framed as universal interventions. However, despite the demonstrated efficacy of many prevention programs, variability in response is the rule with some participants responding very little and others accounting for the bulk of the positive impact of the program. Better understanding the processes associated with better and worse response to prevention is a critical first step in refining and adapting existing programs, or alternatively designing new prevention programs with enhanced outcomes. Because vulnerabilities to substance use, emotional problems, risky sexual behavior and other behavioral problems are influenced by a combination of environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors, mediated in part through psychological processes (Kreek et al., 2005; Rutter et al., 2006), the study of genetic and epigenetic vulnerability and susceptibility factors provides an important starting point for efforts to address this critical need. A growing body of research on differential genetic susceptibility indicates that efforts to enhance prevention impact may benefit from consideration of the contribution of individualgenetic differences to treatment response (Brody et al., 2013). In addition, the recent expansion of genetic research to include a focus on epigenetic change provides considerable promise for the development of indicated prevention and individually tailored prevention efforts. However, before this promise can be realized, a number of theoretical and practical challenges remain. Thus, through this special section, we provide a foundation for a new era of prevention research in which the principles of prevention science are combined with genomic science. In the current special section we bring together authors to deal with genetic and epigenetically driven processes relevant to depression, substance abuse, and sexual risk taking. Together they comment on, and provide data relevant to, assessment, research and statistical methods, The papers help to inform the development of a new generation of prevention programs that go beyond universal programs and sensitively target key processes while providing greater precision regarding prediction of population-level impact.

Application of Antigen Cross-Presentation Research into Patient Care

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451913 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-191-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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The activation of adaptive immune responses requires the processing and presentation of protein antigens to lymphocytes. Especially dendritic cells are effective at display of antigen-derived peptides in the form of immunogenic peptide/MHC complexes to CD4 and CD8-positive T cells, and can stimulate even naive T cells to clonally expand. During the last 40 years, mechanisms that facilitate antigen processing and presentation were clarified, mostly from work in cell lines and mouse models. From mouse-based work, it is now clear that dendritic cells represent a collection of specialized cell subsets that are particularly well endowed to stimulate antigen transport to distinct tissue locations, to transfer antigens between cellular subsets or to trigger T cell responses. Dendritic cell subsets hold great promise for therapeutic application, for example as dendritic cell-based vaccines to bolster immune responses against viruses or malignant growths. Hurdles remain that preclude the efficient application of high quality pre-clinical research into standardized patient care. In this research topic, efforts in dendritic cell research and dendritic cell-based vaccines are discussed, from both pre-clinical and application points of view.

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders: Convergence of preclinical and clinical evidence

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196791 Year: Pages: 283 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-679-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and etc., represent a serious medical and socioeconomic problems. These diseases are often accompanied by impairments of cognitive function, e.g., abstract thinking, decision-making, attention, and several types of memory. Such deficits significantly disrupt quality of life and daily functioning of patients. Cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric diseases are associated with alterations of brain morphology and function, and are often resistant to therapeutic interventions. In schizophrenia and related disorders, cognitive deficits are also defined as endophenotypes, i.e. measurable phenotypes linking these disaeses with discrete heritable and reproducible traits. This points to the importance of elucidating these endophenotypes in translational studies. Animal models may not mimic the full spectrum of clinical symptoms, but may act as analogies of particular behaviors or other pathological outcomes. They are useful to search for the etiology of particular psychiatric illnesses and novel therapeutics. Moreover, several behavioral tests to measure cognitive performance in rodents and other species have been implemented. The primary focus of the present topic is to provide up-to-date information on cognitive deficits of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. This Research Topic also delineates future directions for translational studies aimed at developing novel treatments/interventions of cognitive disturbances.

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