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Biofilms from a Food Microbiology Perspective: Structures, Functions and Control Strategies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451081 Year: Pages: 197 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-108-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Materials and equipment in food processing industries are colonized by surface-associated microbial communities called biofilms. In these biostructures microorganisms are embedded in a complex organic matrix composed essentially of polysaccharides, nucleic acids and proteins. This organic shield contributes to the mechanical biofilm cohesion and triggers tolerance to environmental stresses such as dehydratation or nutrient deprivation. Notably, cells within a biofilm are more tolerant to sanitation processes and the action of antimicrobial agents than their free living (or planktonic) counterparts. Such properties make conventional cleaning and disinfection protocols normally not effective in eradicating these biocontaminants. Biofilms are thus a continuous source of persistent microorganisms, including spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, leading to repeated contamination of processed food with important economic and safety impact. Alternatively, in some particular settings, biofilm formation by resident or technological microorganisms can be desirable, due to possible enhancement of food fermentations or as a means of bioprotection against the settlement of pathogenic microorganisms. In the last decades substantial research efforts have been devoted to unravelling mechanisms of biofilm formation, deciphering biofilm architecture and understanding microbial interactions within those ecosystems. However, biofilms present a high level of complexity and many aspects remain yet to be fully understood. A lot of attention has been also paid to the development of novel strategies for preventing or controlling biofilm formation in industrial settings. Further research needs to be focused on the identification of new biocides effective against biofilm-associated microorganisms, the development of control strategies based on the inhibition of cell-to-cell communication, and the potential use of bacteriocins, bacteriocin-producing bacteria, phage, and natural antimicrobials as anti-biofilm agents, among others. This Research Topic aims to provide an avenue for dissemination of recent advances within the “biofilms” field, from novel knowledge on mechanisms of biofilm formation and biofilm architecture to novel strategies for biofilm control in food industrial settings.

Representation in the Brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455966 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-596-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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This eBook contains ten articles on the topic of representation of abstract concepts, both simple and complex, at the neural level in the brain. Seven of the articles directly address the main competing theories of mental representation – localist and distributed. Four of these articles argue – either on a theoretical basis or with neurophysiological evidence – that abstract concepts, simple or complex, exist (have to exist) at either the single cell level or in an exclusive neural cell assembly. There are three other papers that argue for sparse distributed representation (population coding) of abstract concepts. There are two other papers that discuss neural implementation of symbolic models. The remaining paper deals with learning of motor skills from imagery versus actual execution. A summary of these papers is provided in the Editorial.

Cell Fate

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198528 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-852-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The fundamental question of how an undifferentiated progenitor cell adopts a more specialized cell fate that then contributes to the development of specialized tissues, organs, organ systems and ultimately a unique individual of a given species has intrigued cell and developmental biologists for many years. Advances in molecular and cell biology have enabled investigators to identify genetic and epigenetic factors that contribute to these processes with increasing detail and also to define the various molecular characteristics of each cell fate with greater precision. Understanding these processes have also provided greater insights into disorders in which the normal mechanisms of cell fate determination are altered, such as in cancer and inherited malformations. With these advances have come techniques that facilitate the manipulation of cell fate, which have the potential to revolutionize the field of medicine by facilitating the repair and/or regeneration of diseased organs. Given the rapid advances that are occurring in the field, the articles in this eBook are both relevant and timely. These articles originally appeared online as part of the Research Topic “Cell Fate” overseen by my colleagues Dr. Lin, Dr. Buttitta, Dr. Maves, Dr. Dilworth, Dr. Paladini and myself and have been viewed extensively. Because of their popularity, they are now made available as an eBook, in a more easily downloadable form.Michael T. Chin

Mechanical Loading and Bone

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197514 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-751-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This research topic is focused on recent advances in our understanding of effects of mechanical loading on the skeleton, and research methods used in addressing these. Though it is well established that mechanical loading provides an essential stimulus for skeletal growth and maintenance, there have been major advances recently in terms of our understanding of the molecular pathways involved, which are thought to provide novel drug targets for treating osteoporosis. The articles included in this topic encompass the full spectrum of laboratory and clinical research, and range from review articles, editorials, hypothesis papers and original research articles. Together, they demonstrate how mechanical loading underpins many aspects of bone biology, including the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis and other clinical disorders associated with skeletal fragility.

Root Systems Biology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192755 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-275-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The understanding of biological complexity has been greatly facilitated by cross-disciplinary, holistic approaches that allow insights into the function and regulation of biological processes that cannot be captured by dissecting them into their individual components. In addition, the development of novel tools has dramatically increased our ability to interrogate information at the nucleic acid, protein and metabolite level. The integration and interpretation of disparate data sets, however, still remain a major challenge in systems biology. Roots provide an excellent model for studying physiological, developmental, and metabolic processes. The availability of genetic resources, along with sequenced genomes has allowed important discoveries in root biochemistry, development and function. Roots are transparent, allowing optical investigation of gene activity in individual cells and experimental manipulation. In addition, the predictable fate of cells emerging from the root meristem and the continuous development of roots throughout the life of the plant, which permits simultaneous observation of different developmental stages, provide ideal premises for the analysis of growth and differentiation. Moreover, a genetically fixed cellular organization allows for studying the utilization of positional information and other non-cell-autonomous phenomena, which are of utmost importance in plant development. Although their ontogeny is largely invariant under standardized experimental conditions, roots possess an extraordinary capacity to respond to a plethora of environmental signals, resulting in distinct phenotypic readouts. This high phenotypic plasticity allows research into acclimative and adaptive strategies, the understanding of which is crucial for germplasm enhancement and crop improvement. With the aim of providing a current snapshot on the function and development of roots at the systems level, this Research Topic collated original research articles, methods articles, reviews, mini reviews and perspective, opinion and hypotheses articles that communicate breakthroughs in root biology, as well as recent advances in research technologies and data analysis.

Putting the "why" back into bone "archytecture"

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193110 Year: Pages: 82 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-311-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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A large literature exists on trabecular and cortical bone morphology. The engineering performance of bone, implied from its 3d architecture, is often the endpoint of bone biology experiments, being clinically relevant to bone fracture. How and why does bone travel along its complex spatio-temporal trajectory to acquire its architecture? The question "why" can have two meanings. The first, "teleological - why is an architecture advantageous?" – is the domain of substantial biomechanical research to date. The second, "etiological – how did an architecture come about?" – has received far less attention. This Frontiers Bone Research Topic invited contributions addressing this "etiological why" – what mechanisms can coordinate the activity of bone forming and resorbing cells to produce the observed complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is proposed – chaotic nonlinear pattern formation (NPF) which underlies – in a unifying way – natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying or shoaling fish, island formation, fluid turbulence and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements multiplied and repeated many times, lead to complex and structured patterns. This paradigm of growth and form leads to a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone "the architecture is the regulation". The former is the emergent consequence of the latter. Whatever mechanism does determine bone's developing architecture has to operate at the level of individual sites of formation and resorption and coupling between the two. This has implications as to how we understand the effect on bone of agents such as gene products or drugs. It may be for instance that the "tuning" of coupling between formation and resorption might be as important as the achievement of enhanced bone volume. The ten articles that were contributed to this Topic were just what we hoped for – a snapshot of leading edge bone biology research which addresses the question of how bone gets its shape. We hope that you find these papers thought-provoking, and that they might stimulate new ideas in the research into bone architecture, growth and adaptation, and how to preserve healthy bone from gestation and childhood until old age.

Virtual Plants: Modeling Plant Architecture in Changing Environments

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450923 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-092-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Plant architecture is a major determinant of the resource use efficiency of crops. The architecture of a plant shows ontogenetic structural changes which are modified by multiple environmental factors: Plant canopies are exposed to natural fluctuations in light quantity and the dynamically changing canopy architecture induces local variations in light quality. Changing temperature conditions or water availability during growth additionally affect plant architecture and thus crop productivity, because plants have various options to adapt their architecture to the available resources. Meeting the challenge of ensuring food security we must understand the plant’s mechanisms for integrating and responding to an orchestra of environmental factors. ‘Virtual plants’ describe plant architecture in silico. Virtual plants have the potential to help us understanding the complex feedback processes between canopy architecture, multiple environmental factors and crop productivity. As a research tool, they have become increasingly popular within the last decade due to their great power of realistically visualizing the plant’s architecture. This Research Topic highlights current research carried out on modeling plant architecture in changing environments.

Roots - The Hidden Provider

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452446 Year: Pages: 243 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-244-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Models and Estimation of Genetic Effects

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194445 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-444-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Ecology --- Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Ronald Fisher needed to develop elaborate models of genetic effects in order to set the foundations of Quantitative Genetics in his 1918 paper “The correlation between relatives on the supposition of Mendelian inheritance”. Since then, many significant implementations have been made to model genetic effects. However, at the verge of one century after Fisher’s kick-off, models of genetic effects keep on being discussed and implemented. Indeed, the relatively recent advent of QTL analyses challenged the state of the art of this field by providing researchers the opportunity to obtain and analyze estimates of genetic effects from real data. In this context, the development of this field was not exempt of some polemics, like the debate about the convenience of the functional and the statistical epistasis approaches. This research topic is meant to provide recent developments in models and estimation of genetic effects and to enrich the discussion about how and why models of genetic effects must be further developed and applied.The articles in this Research Topic shall thus extend, refine and/or provide a refresh look at Fisher’s original models of genetic effects and their application to genetic effects estimation and to improve our understanding of evolutionary processes and breeding programs.

Global Change, Clonal Growth, and Biological Invasions by Plants

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450466 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-046-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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There are few more active frontiers in plant science than helping understand and predict the ecological consequences of on-going, global changes in climate, land use and cover, nutrient cycling, and acidity. This collection of research papers and reviews focuses on how these changes are likely to interact with two important factors, clonal growth in plants and the introduction of species into new regions by humans, to reshape the ecology of our world. Clonal growth is vegetative reproduction in which offspring remain attached to the parent at least until establishment. Clonal growth is associated with the invasiveness of introduced species, their tendency to spread after introduction and negatively affect other species. Will changes in climate, land cover, or nutrients further increase biological invasions by introduced, clonal plants? The articles in this book seek to address this question with new research and theory on clonal growth and its interactions with invasiveness and other components of global change.

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