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Improving outcomes in cerebral palsy with early intervention: new translational approaches

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195121 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-512-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The aim of this Research Topic was to collate articles describing prediction of outcomes of pre- and perinatal lesions leading to cerebral palsy, basic research in animal models and human subjects, and ideas for, and trials of, interventions in the first two years of life.CP arises from insults to the sensorimotor cortex, subcortical axon tracts and subplate. The aetiology is complex and often multifactorial. The outcome is not simply a loss of voluntary control due to disruption of descending pathways, but also involves abnormal development of reflex and corticospinal circuitry. CP may be viewed as aberrant plasticity in response to a lesion, indeed, abnormalities in movement are subtle at first but develop subsequently. It is misleading to suppose that developmental mechanisms are self-reparative. The challenge is to understand activitydependent fine tuning of neural circuitry during normal development and to find how to promote desirable plasticity whilst limiting undesirable effects following developmental lesions. However, before proposing interventions, we have to develop our ability to predict the severity of neonatal insults.We solicited a variety of articles, including long and short reviews, original research and opinion pieces, from both basic scientists and clinicians. Likewise we, as editors, have complementary knowledge and experience in this area. Anna Basu is an academic pediatric neurologist and Gavin Clowry is a developmental neuroscientist.

Nutrition and prevention of Alzheimer's disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197194 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-719-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Altered metabolism is known to be associated with a higher incidence of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Diabetes type 2, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are considered risk factors for the development of dementias, including AD. These metabolic diseases may have a genetic predisposition, but most of them are caused by environmental factors and life-style. Most research has focused on the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) and sweetened beverages that induce obesity. Importantly, a HFD can also trigger oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation and cognitive decline. Less is known, however, about beneficial effects of diet on cognition, such as slowing the progression or preventing AD by ingesting whole fruits, vegetables, fish and oil. It is important to highlight the difference between vitamin/mineral supplements and whole food, as it appears that the former are clinically ineffective, while multiple ingredients in the latter act synergistically to improve cognition. As AD is a disease of slow progression, therapies should start several decades before clinical symptoms can be observed; one strategy can be the ingestion of healthy food in those subjects with one or more risk factors (genetic, environmental, life-style) already in their 40s, just when some brain metabolic disturbances start to develop. This dietary therapy can overcome the increased reactive oxygen species, protein deposition and synaptic failure, characteristic of AD. This research topic will cover a range of research articles, case studies, opinion and mini-reviews, all focused on describing the damaging effects of an industrial diet on cognition as well as on highlighting the beneficial effects of a healthy diet to prevent AD. We believe that we still have time to fight against the negative impact of our industrialized cultures, and adopt better eating habits, increase exercise and slow down our life style to prevent increasing dementia in the aging population. Also, all these topics has been a product of intensives investigations, with a great life hope, and we hope you all enjoy reading this e-book.

Keywords

Cognition --- Diet --- Vitamins --- Minerals --- Functional Food --- Dementia --- Aging --- biomarkers --- diagnosis

Applications of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) Tools in Microbiology of Infectious Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451838 Year: Pages: 223 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-183-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Epidemiology is a discipline intended to systematically investigate, and ideally quantify, disease dynamics in populations (Perez, 2015). Epidemiological assessmentsmay be divided into four large areas, namely, (a) identification and characterization of a pathogen, (b) development of systems for detection of cases, (c) descriptive epidemiology and quantification of disease patterns, and (d) advanced analytical methods to design intervention strategies. Briefly, there is an initial need for understanding the pathogeny of a disease and condition, which may also include experimental studies and development of new models of infection and proliferation under different conditions. Subsequently, such knowledgemay be applied to support the identification of cases, which typically includes the design, evaluation, and validation of diagnostic tests. Diseasemay then be quantified in a population, leading to the identification of patterns and application of molecular characterization techniques to understand disease spread, and ultimately to identify factors preventing or promoting disease. Finally, those factors may be incorporated into advanced quantitative methods and epidemiological models, which are used to design and evaluate strategies aimed at preventing, controlling, or eliminating disease in the population.Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the application of science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) tools and approaches intended to enhance such analytical epidemiology process, with the ultimate goal of supporting disease prevention, control, and eradication. This eBook comprises a series of research articles that, through current state-of-the-art scientific knowledge on the application of STEM tools to the microbiology of infectious diseases, demonstrate their usefulness at the various components of an integral epidemiological approach, divided into the four large components of (a) experimental studies, (b) novel diagnostic techniques, (c) epidemiological characterization, and (d) population modeling and intervention.

Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease: The Present and the Future

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450411 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-041-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by significant cognitive deficits, behavioral changes, sleep disorders and loss of functional autonomy. AD represents the main cause of dementia and has become a major public health issue. In addition, the number of patients suffering from AD is growing rapidly as the population ages worldwide. Memory impairment is usually the earliest clinical and core symptom of this disease. The diagnosis at a late clinical stage is relatively easy. However, a delay in the diagnosis is damageable for the handling of patients in terms of optimal medical and social care. The actual interest of the scientific head-ways is to optimize the diagnosis in prodromal stage of the disease and to propose personalized therapeutic solutions to individual patients. New revised AD diagnostic criteria include early alteration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers: decrease of amyloïd peptides (Aß42), and increase in tau and phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) protein concentration. This recognition of CSF biological biomarkers for the diagnosis of AD is a major step towards the “molecular” diagnosis and follow-up of the disease. Many issues are however still subject of debate. This e-book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art of fluid biomarkers for AD, e.g. which novel biomarkers should be implemented in clinical practice for diagnosis or for monitoring treatment or side effects, which ones are new for AD or related dementias or what is the potential of peripheral blood markers. Moreover, the e-Book provides practical guidelines how to optimally and efficiently develop and validate novel biomarker assays, and to document and control pre-analytical variation.

Significance of antigen and epitope specificity in tuberculosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194513 Year: Pages: 119 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-451-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Dissection of the specificity of host immune responses following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential for designing effective vaccination and diagnostic biomarkers as well as for better understanding of immunopathogenesis of active tuberculosis. The articles in this volume of the Topics in Microbial Immunology review the significance of this area of research from both experimental models and clinical surveys. This includes T cell recognition of MHC permissive epitopes, use of algorithms for genome-based prediction of immunodominant epitopes, evaluation of candidate antigens/epitopes and adjuvants for vaccination and immunodiagnosis. Future research strategies indicate the need for better understanding of the relationship between epitope specificity and the phenotype of responding T cells and search for biomarkers with a capacity to discriminate and predict the change from latent infection to active disease. These research avenues have important potentials for improving the prevention and control of tuberculosis.

Molecular Diagnostics in the Detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451944 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-194-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Neurodegeneration is characterized by the progressive loss of neural tissue that result in various neurodegeneration-initiated cerebral failures and complex diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease. All these medical conditions are accompanied by the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is an interface, separating the brain from the circulatory system and protecting the central nervous system from potentially harmful chemicals while regulating transport of essential molecules and maintaining a stable environment. Owing to the inability of the neurons to regenerate on their own after neurodegeneration or severe damage to the neural tissue, neurodegenerative disorders do not have natural cures on their own. Neuroregeneration is a viable way to curb neurodegeneration. One of the current approaches is stem cell-based therapy that has been shown to be potentially helpful for the application of neuronal cell replacement for neuroregeneration. It is vital that the neurodegenerative disorder being detected at an early stage as it can provide a chance for treatment that may be helpful to prevent further progression of the fatal disease. Thus, research has focused on developing effective non-invasive diagnostic methods for early detection of these disorders. Molecular diagnostics can provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological disorders. Such diagnosis can enhance early detection, provide subsequent medical counsel based on medical pathway, as well as to gain better insight of neurogenesis and hopefully eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. With research reports, reviews, mini-reviews and commentary, this research topic covers a wide range of areas in neurodegeneration research, including diagnosis and prognosis; regulating central nervous system; biomarkers and brain injury induced neurobehavioral outcomes among other timely reports on neurodegeneration.

Perspectives for the Next Generation of Virus Research: Spearheading the Use of Innovative Technologies and Methodologies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452156 Year: Pages: 191 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-215-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Infectious diseases are associated with approximately 20% of global mortality, with viral diseases causing about one third of these deaths. Besides newly emerging and re-emerging viral infections will continue to pose a threat to human survival globally. In this case scientific advances have greatly been increased to defend against those pathogens. For example, rapid genomic sequencing, proteomics, epigenomics, nanotechnology, and other advanced tools are being applied to detect viruses at the point of care and to track their spread within human populations as well as to understand virus-host interaction and virus induced pathogenesis. From rapid identification of new viruses to prevention with vaccination and treatment with effective therapeutics, biomedical research has continuously provided tools to meet the constant threat of emerging viral pathogens. Despite these advances, each new disease brings unique challenges to scientists every year. So we must stay at the cutting edge of scientific discovery, working energetically to develop new tools to combat the ever-changing threats they pose. Our research topic highlights such advanced and new technology based virus research which definitely bolsters the researcher's ability to tackle emerging, re-emerging and stable viral pathogens. We are credulous that the papers including in the e-books will be beneficial to the experts in the field to understand the molecular, immunological, ecological and clinical aspects of the next generation researches for the prevention and control of infectious diseases caused by viruses.

Central Nervous System Metastases in Lung Cancer Patients: From Prevention to Diagnosis and Treatment

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457076 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-707-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Approximately 40% of lung cancer patients will develop central nervous system (CNS) metastases during the course of their disease. Most of these are brain metastases, but up to 10% will develop leptomeningeal metastases. Known risk factors for CNS metastases development are small cell lung cancer (SCLC), adenocarcinoma histology, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearranged lung cancer, advanced nodal status, tumor stage and younger age. CNS metastases can have a negative impact on quality of life (QoL) and overall survival (OS). The proportion of lung cancer patients diagnosed with CNS metastases has increased over the years due to increased use of brain imaging as part of initial cancer staging, advances in imaging techniques and better systemic disease control. Post contrast gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (gd-MRI) is preferred, however when this is contra-indicated a contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) is mentioned as an alternative option. When CNS metastases are diagnosed, local treatment options consist of radiotherapy (stereotactic or whole brain) and surgery. Local treatment can be complicated by symptomatic radiation necrosis for which no high level evidence based treatment exists. Moreover, differential diagnosis with metastasis progression is difficult. Systemic treatment options have expanded over the last years. Until recently, chemotherapy was the only treatment option with a poor penetration in the CNS. Angiogenesis inhibitors are promising in the treatment of primary CNS tumors as well as radiation necrosis but clinical trials of anti-angiogenic agents in NSCLC have largely excluded patients with CNS metastases. Furthermore, research has also focused on methods to prevent development of CNS disease, for example with prophylactic cranial irradiation. Recently, checkpoint inhibitors have become available for NSCLC patients, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have improved prognosis significantly in those with a druggable driver mutation. Newer TKIs are often designed to have better CNS penetration compared to first-generation TKIs. Despite advances in treatment options CNS metastases remain a problem in lung cancer and cause morbidity and mortality.This Research Topic provides an extensive resource of articles describing advances in CNS metastases management in lung cancer patients, from prevention to diagnosis and treatment.

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