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Emergent Public Health Issues in the US-Mexico Border Region

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450473 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-047-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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US-Mexico border region area has unique social, demographic and policy forces at work that shape the health of its residents as well as serves as a microcosm of migration health challenges facing an increasingly mobile and globalized world. This region reflects the largest migratory flow between any two nations in the world. Data from the Pew Research Center shows over the last 25 years there has never been lower than 140,000 annual immigrants from Mexico to the United States (with peaks over 700,000). This migratory route is extremely hazardous due to natural (e.g., arid and hot desert regions) and human made barriers as well as border enforcement practices tied to socio-political and geopolitical pressures. Also, reflecting the national interdependency of public health and human services needs, during the most recent five year period surveyed the migratory flow between the US and Mexico has equaled that of the flow of Mexico to the US--both around 1.4 million persons. Of particular public health concern, within the US-Mexico region of both nations there is among the highest disparities in income, education, infrastructure and access to health care--factors within the World Health Organization’s conceptualization of the Social Determinants of Health, and among the highest rates of chronic disease. For instance obesity and diabetes rates in this region are among the highest of those monitored in the world, with adult population estimates of the former over 40% and estimates in some population sub-groups for the latter over 20%. The publications reflected in this Research Topic, all reviewed from experts in the field, addressed many of the public health issues in the US Mexico Border Health Commission’s Healthy Border 2020 objectives. Those objectives-- broad public health goals used to guide a diverse range of government, research and community-based stakeholders--include Non Communicable Diseases (including adult and childhood obesity-related ones; cancer), Infectious Diseases (e.g., tuberculosis; HIV; emerging diseases--particularly mosquito borne illnesses), Maternal and Child Health, Mental Health Disorders, and Motor Vehicle Accidents. Other relevant public health issues affecting this region, for example environmental health, binational health services coordination (e.g., immunization), the impact of migration throughout the Americas and globally in this region, health issues related to the physical climate, access to quality health care, discrimination/mistreatment and well-being, acculturative/immigration stress, violence, substance use/abuse, oral health, respiratory disease, and well-being from a social determinants of health framework, are critical areas addressed in these publications or for future research. Each of these Research Topic publications presented applied solutions (e.g., new programs, technology or infrastructure) and/or public health policy recommendations relevant to each public health challenge addressed.

Undergraduate Education for Public Health in the United States

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196111 Year: Pages: 81 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-611-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Undergraduate programs in public health are growing rapidly. At colleges and universities throughout the United States, both the number of programs and the number of students have expanded greatly in the past decade. In response to this trend, the Council for Education of Public Health (CEPH) has begun to accredit undergraduate public health programs, with the first programs approved in 2014. Around the country programs exhibit wide variation, from concentrations in liberal arts colleges to pre-clinical foundations at doctorate-granting universities to undergraduate programs in accredited schools of public health. Faculty, both new and seasoned, are fully aware of the need to integrate undergraduate education in public health with graduate education—but the roadmaps of exactly how to do so are still nascent. The purpose of this Research Topic is to gather articles describing this variation, with the intent that the collective body of work will facilitate analysis and discussion of what makes a quality education and builds a competent workforce.

Educating the Global Workforce for Public Health

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454471 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-447-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Good quality management of the health system demands a critical mass of health professionals with sound technical knowledge. The education that produces a workforce of appropriate size and skills is often a challenge in the delivery of quality health services. Incidentally, health professionals’ education has not kept pace with the new emerging challenges. Recent globalization of health has further led to international migration of health professionals, thereby leading to cross-border recognition of health workers with an appropriate skill-mix, knowledge, and competence. The Lancet Commission Report of 2010 highlighted the need to develop a common strategy at a global level for postgraduate medical, nursing, and public health education that reaches beyond the confines of national borders and the silos of individual professions. This vision would require a series of instructional and institutional reforms, which should be guided by two proposed outcomes: transformative learning and interdependence in education. The purpose of this Research Topic is to increase the shared understanding of the current status of the education of the health workforce around the globe, particularly those working in the public health sector. With this foundation, further research and evaluation studies can then be done with a perspective that addresses global workforce issues impacting access, prevention, and care.

Today’s Nutrition and Tomorrow’s Public Health: Challenges and Opportunities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198184 Year: Pages: 83 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-818-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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At the dawn of the third millennium, we are confronted with a disturbing phenomenon: although global life expectancy still increases, this is not the case for healthy life expectancy! The explanation of this seemingly contradiction is mainly due to the rising prevalence of the new pandemia of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Even in low and middle income countries, the improvement in healthcare status and life expectancy is paralled by the increase of NCDs, as in all countries worldwide. Since the United Nations General Assembly held in New York in 2011, many publications have emphasized the close link between NCDs and nutrition. The NCDs epidemic forces us to reconsider the public health perspectives. Many governments, non-governmental organizations and other institutions are actively involved in educational nutrition programs and campaigns; however their efforts seldom obtain the results hoped for. It is extremely difficult to induce changes in lifestyle and behavior that have built up over a long period of time. However, it becomes urgent to adapt to our changing life-environment where traditional wisdom and intuitive choices are giving way to individual thinking and search for (often uncontrolled) information. This engenders a number of unprecedented challenges and it calls for a re-appraisal of the existing paradigms to achieve an adequate management of the upstream determinants of health instead of a (pre)dominant medical and hospital-centric approach. In the era of personalized healthcare, it is time to empower policy makers, professionals and citizens for achieving an evidence-based change in the health-disease interface and decision-making process for public health interventions. The scientific and professional society Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) has recognized nutrition as a health technology by creating a Interest Group (IG) dedicated to research on methodologies and assessments of nutrition-related public health, while taking into account contextual factors (ethical, legal, social, organizational, economic, ...) in order to generate meaningful outcomes for establishing evidence-based health policies. This Research Topic aims to elaborate on some of the potential hurdles which have to be overcome for the sake of sustainable healthcare provisions anywhere in the world, such as shortcomings in methodological approaches, regulatory frameworks, gaps between evidence, its hierarchy and final recommendations for public health management.

Reducing Oral Health Disparities: What Can We Learn from Social; Environmental and Cultural Factors?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453719 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-371-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Oral health disparities are profound worldwide, and they affect the quality of life of individuals of all age groups. Disparities in oral health are seen in racial and ethnic minorities, at different socioeconomic levels and due to differences in environment and cultural factors. Several determinants of oral health have been identified at the population, community, family and individual levels. These determinants represent a complex interplay of the social, biological, cultural and economic factors that in turn affect the oral health behaviors, environmental exposures, health care utilization. To date, biological factors related to oral diseases have received much attention in oral health research; whilst social and cultural determinants have just started to receive recognition for their role in oral disease development and progression. This research highlights that interventions designed to reduce disparities should adopt a multi-level approach in order to identify the modifiable mechanisms and target all determinants of oral health disparities. In this Research Topic, we will focus on the role of social, environmental and cultural factors in the development and progression of oral diseases, their role in oral health disparities and interventions focusing on these factors to improve oral health and reduce disparities.

Role of Health Economic Data in Policy Making and Reimbursement of New Medical Technologies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453207 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-320-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-22 11:34:28
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This Research Topic was focused on provision of novel medical technologies worldwide keeping in mind financial sustainability challenge. An exemplary area certainly are oncology pharmaceuticals where prices have increased 10-fold in recent years leading to concerns on affordability. The objective of this collection of studies was to reveal some of the hidden underlying causes of unequal access to the medicines. Another core issue is the growing proportion of out-of-pocket health spending in many world regions. In line with the joint efforts of the editors and authors we received an exceptionally high response worldwide. This E-Book attracted a total of 37 self-standing research submissions out of which 32 ultimately passed external peer review and got published. Base affiliations of the authors spread across academia, pharmaceutical and medical device industry, governmental authorities and clinical medicine. Their home institutions were situated in fifteen different countries inclusive of Japan, Israel, Russia, USA, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Austria, Spain, Malta, Serbia, Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary and Malaysia. We frankly believe that authors succeeded to cover important literature gaps referring to these world regions. We solicit global professional audience to put our efforts to the test and read this contribution to the health economics literature.

Computers and Games for Mental Health and Well-Being

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454969 Year: Pages: 311 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-496-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Recent years have seen important developments in the computer and game industry, including the emergence of the concept of serious games. It is hypothesized that tools such as games, virtual reality, or applications for smartphones may foster learning, enhance motivation, promote behavioral change, support psychotherapy, favor empowerment, and improve some cognitive functions. Computers and games may create supports for training or help people with cognitive, emotional, or behavioral change. Games take various formats, from board games to informatics to games with interactive rules of play. Similarly, computer tools may vary widely in format, from self-help or assisted computerized training to virtual reality or applications for smartphones. Some tools that may be helpful for mental health were specifically designed for that goal, whereas others were not. Gamification of computer-related products and games with a numeric format tend to reduce the gap between games and computers tools and increase the conceptual synergy in such fields. Games and computer design share an opportunity for creativity and innovation to help create, specifically design, and assess preventive or therapeutic tools. Computers and games share a design conception that allows innovative approaches to overcome barriers of the real world by creating their own rules. Yet, despite the potential interest in such tools to improve treatment of mental disorders and to help prevent them, the field remains understudied and information is under-disseminated in clinical practice. Some studies have shown, however, that there is potential interest and acceptability of tools that support various vehicles, rationales, objectives, and formats. These tools include traditional games (e.g., chess games), popular electronic games, board games, computer-based interventions specifically designed for psychotherapy or cognitive training, virtual reality, apps for smartphones, and so forth. Computers and games may offer a true opportunity to develop, assess, and disseminate new prevention and treatment tools for mental health and well-being. Currently, there is a strong need for state-of-the-art information to answer questions such as the following: Why develop such tools for mental health and well-being? What are the potential additions to traditional treatments? What are the best strategies or formats to improve the possible impact of these tools? Are such tools useful as a first treatment step? What is the potential of a hybrid model of care that combines traditional approaches with games and/or computers as tools? What games and applications have already been designed and studied? What is the evidence from previous studies? How can such tools be successfully designed for mental health and well-being? What is rewarding or attractive for patients in using such treatments? What are the worldwide developments in the field? Are some protocols under development? What are the barriers and challenges related to such developments? How can these tools be assessed, and how can the way that they work, and for whom, be measured? Are the potential benefits of such products specific, or can these additions be attributed to nonspecific factors? What are the users’ views on such tools? What are the possible links between such tools and social networks? Is there a gap between evidence-based results and market development? Are there any quality challenges? What future developments and studies are needed in the field?

Microorganisms for Functional Food

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198825 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-882-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Nowadays, most of Western consumers are aware that a targeted diet could be an important tool for fighting ageing and diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Microorganisms may be exploited for setting up novel foods that, beside their nutritional value, may positively impact on consumers’ health. Some microorganisms may benefit host when ingested as viable cells carried by food and beverages. This falls in the intriguing field of probiotics, recently brought forward by the numerous probiotic claims rejected by the European Food Safety Authority. This research topic includes research articles and reviews/perspectives that (i) contribute to understand the mechanism underlying the health effects of probiotic microorganisms; (ii) show integrated approaches for selecting new probiotics; (iii) report about non-dairy food items as novel carriers of probiotics; and (iv) deal with biologically active compounds from microorganisms.

Health Care Financing and Affordability in the Emerging Global Markets

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198375 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-837-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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During the recent few decades, global economic growth has been driven largely by developing world economies. The ones with the most intensive pace of development were marked as “emerging“ markets led by so called BRICS and N-11 countries. Such changes inevitably reflected the global health arena. A number of issues previously limited to established high-income economies became popularly discussed topics on the agendas of public health policy makers across these regions. Major challenges remain population aging, rising incidence of prosperity diseases, lack of universal insurance coverage and particularly provision of just and equitable access to medical care among the poor both in urban and rural communities. A significant part of the difficulties faced by these societies are attributed to inefficient resource allocation strategies in health care and unsatisfactory funding strategies. This Research Topic was created in order to address the core challenges of medical care financing and its affordability across the emerging global markets. Contributions of both undergoing or finished original research as well as review style papers are welcomed. All submitted manuscripts should deal with issues relevant to health care economics and policy in recognized global emerging markets. Outside the aforementioned key markets (BRICS- Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa; Next 11- Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, South Korea, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Turkey and Vietnam) submissions referring to any of the dynamically developing Asian, Latin America, Eastern Europe or MENA countries are encouraged. In addition to a variety of health-economic evaluations and health policy analysis, methodological and resource use studies are within the Topic scope. Health policy considerations should be primarily focused on financing mechanisms and affordability of health care although other surrounding issues such as health insurance, reimbursement and cost-containment strategies will be considered.

Towards Elimination of Dog Mediated Human Rabies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452996 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-299-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Rabies is an ancient zoonotic viral disease that still exerts a high impact on human and animal health. The disease is almost 100% fatal after clinical signs appear, and it kills tens of thousands of people per year worldwide, particularly in Africa and many parts of Asia. Although the disease in humans can be prevented by timely post-exposure prophylaxis, its access and affordability is limited in rabies endemic countries. With 99% of infections in humans caused by rabid domestic dog bites, controlling the infection in this reservoir population has been proven to be most effective to reduce and eliminate human rabies cases. In this context, this Research Topic invited contributions on the control and elimination of dog mediated human rabies. Publications on epidemiological, educational, policy-related and economic aspects of dog and human rabies surveillance, implementation of control in dogs and humans and scientific documentation of success stories were consolidated. We hope that these articles contribute to reaching the ambitious goal, set by key players in global health, of the elimination of dog mediated human rabies by 2030.

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