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Pain Management in Clinical and Health Psychology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456666 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-666-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Chronic pain is a relevant health problem frequently associated with psychological distress, dysfunctions in physical and social functioning, reductions in quality of life and elevated direct and indirect costs. Medical approach is typically useful for treating chronic pain, but also psychological contributions play an important role in pain management. In fact psychological treatments are recognized as generally effective for pain. Psychological approaches in managing pain have evolved considerably and now understanding and managing the cognitions, emotions and behaviors that accompany the situation of discomfort can actually reduce the pain intensity and the interference of pain with daily life. Psychological therapies are highly indicated both for the treatment of painful conditions and for the treatment of pain related to several neurological diseases. The reviews and meta-analyses conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of different forms of psychotherapy across several disorders, although with different levels of experimental evidence, confirmed that psychological interventions can improve the experience of patients at every age (children, adolescents, adults, seniors). Similar positive results about psychotherapy efficacy were reported in specific pain disorders such as low back pain, fibromyalgia, tension-type headache and migraine, pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic abdominal pain in adolescents, chronic orofacial pain, etc. Clinical health psychology focuses also on the study of the psychological determinants in pain patients such as the role of depression, anxiety, pain-related disability, catastrophic thinking, psychological inflexibility, coping skills, beliefs, attitudes, expectations, self-efficacy, placebo and nocebo effects, etc. Different psychological models of pain and disability (such as Fear-avoidance, Acceptance and commitment, Misdirected problem solving, Self-efficacy and Stress-diathesis models) have tried to highlight the psychological processes behind pain. The major objective of the present Research Topic is to collect new scientific evidence, clinical experiences, reviews and opinion articles about clinical health psychology and psychotherapy in pain management and treatment. Moreover this RT will focus on psychological factors, basic psychological processes and theoretical models that could have an impact in the development of persistent pain and disability and implications for different therapies, considering psychological interventions in peri-operative pain and/or preventive interventions in sub-acute pain too.

Keywords

Pain --- Pain Management --- Chronic Pain

Role of Intravenous Levetiracetam in Acute Seizure Management

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193226 Year: Pages: 74 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-322-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Intractable epilepsy still remains the main issue despite new advances in medical and surgical treatment of epilepsy. Acute seizure management in a timely manner is crucial to prevent irreversible brain damage. Benzodiazepines still remain the first initial treatment to abort the seizure activity. The approval phenytoin, fosphenytoin, intravenous valproate, and rectal diazepam provided additional options. The approval of intravenous levetiracetam gave another option to physicians if and when the above treatment fails to control the seizure activity. In this Ebook, we have included chapters from renowned researchers in the field of neurology and epilepsy who have covered the various aspects of these agents in detail including the properties, mechanism of action, pharmacology, neurobehavioral effects, and the roles of these agents in special populations including traumatic brain injury and brain tumor related epilepsy. These data further show that intravenous levetiracetam can be used in acute seizure management and in special circumstances.

Advances in Parasitic Weeds Research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456338 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-633-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Parasitic weeds are severe constraint to agriculture and major crop production, and the efficacy of available means to control them is minimal. Control strategies have centred around agronomic practices, resistant varieties and the use of herbicides. Novel integrated control programmes should be sympathetic to agricultural extensification while exerting minimal harmful effects on the environment. This eBook covers recent advances in biology, physiology of parasitism, genetics, population dynamics, resistance, host-parasite relationships, regulation of seed germination, etc., in order to offer an outstanding windows to these enigmatic plants, and contribute to their practical management.

Grassland-Invertebrate Interactions: Plant Productivity; Resilience and Community Dynamics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452903 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-290-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Natural and anthropogenic grasslands such as prairies, meadows, rangelands, and pastures cover more than 40% of the planet’s surface and provide a wealth of ecological services. Grasslands alone store one third of the global carbon stocks and grass roots, through their specific architectures, ensure water cycling and prevent the erosion of fertile topsoil. In addition, grasslands are of vital importance for human food production as vast areas of rangelands and pastures provide feed for livestock. Pastoral legumes mobilize atmospheric nitrogen and improve fertility of arable soils. Not least, grasslands are an essential genetic resource. The three major crop species that feed half of the global population have been bred from wild grasses. Ancestors of our contemporary turf cultivars, common components of urban landscapes and recreation spaces, originated from wild grasslands. Although natural and managed grasslands represent pivotal ecosystems, many aspects of how they function are poorly understood. To date, most attention has focused on grassland primary producers (i.e. forage plants) and mammalian grazers but invertebrates are likely to play an equally, if not more important role in grassland ecosystem functioning. In Australian pastures, for example, the biomass of root-feeding scarab beetles can often exceed that of sheep and plant damage caused by invertebrates is sometimes equivalent to an average dairy cow’s grass consumption. Indeed, grasslands are one of the most densely populated ecosystems with invertebrates being probably the most important engineers that shape both plant communities and the grassland as a whole. In a rapidly changing world with increasing anthropogenic pressure on grasslands, this Research Topic focuses on: 1. How grassland habitats shape invertebrate biodiversity2. Impacts of climate change on grassland-invertebrate interactions3. Plant and invertebrate pest monitoring and management4. Plant-mediated multitrophic interactions and biological control in grasslands5. Land use and grassland invertebrates6. Plant resistance to invertebrate pests Given the increasing demand for food and land for human habitation, unprecedented threats to grasslands are anticipated. Resilient to some extent, these key ecosystems need to be better comprehended to guarantee their sustainable management and ecosystem services.

Principles of Hip Arthroscopy

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452507 Year: Pages: 89 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-250-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The field of arthroscopy, originating from Denmark in 1912, has rapidly evolved to diagnose and treat a wide range of musculoskeletal pathologies. Although around for sometime, arthroscopy in the field of orthopedics has traditionally focused on the knee, shoulder, or elbow, as arthroscopy of the hip is technically challenging; the deep structures of the hip, including neurovascular bundles, require specialized training and equipment to access. However, with advances in surgical techniques, hip arthroscopy has become increasingly popular given its ability to treat pathologies with previously poor prognoses such as labral tears, hip arthritis and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). When indicated, hip arthroscopy results in shorter recovery times, low complication rates, and excellent outcomes in quality of life and pain regardless of age, gender or activity level. The purpose of this e-book is to shed light on this expanding field by delving into the common hip pathology femoroacetabular impingement, its clinical relevance, and to explore various surgical techniques and postoperative rehabilitation. It is our hope that this textbook provides valuable knowledge to advance the field of hip arthroscopy, enhance surgical techniques, and ultimately increase the quality of patient care.

Pediatric Venous Thromboembolism

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456390 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-639-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs less often in children than adults and therefore remains underrecognized despite increasing in incidence. Due to the risk of mortality, short- and long-term morbidity, and increased healthcare costs associated with pediatric VTE, this entity merits better understanding and consideration. With this Research Topic, we aim to highlight some special considerations of pediatric VTE, namely risk factors and epidemiology, rare types of pediatric thrombosis and considerations unique to specific clinical patient subgroups, approaches to management and treatment, and prevention

Evidence-Based Programming for Older Adults

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195855 Year: Pages: 361 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-585-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-02 10:49:06
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There is increased world-wide concern about the impact of multiple chronic conditions, especially among the rapidly aging population. Simultaneously, over the past decade there has been an emergence of state-wide and national initiatives to reduce the burden of chronic conditions that draw upon the translation of evidence-based programs (EPB) into community practice. Yet, little has been written about the national and international implementation, dissemination, and sustainability of such programs. This Research Topic features articles about EBPs for older adults, including a range of articles that focus on the infrastructure needed to widely disseminate EBP as well as individual participant impacts on physical, mental, and social aspects of health and well-being. Using a pragmatic research perspective, this Research Topic will advance knowledge that aims to enhance practice, inform policy and build systems of support and delivery in regard to the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of evidence-based interventions for older adults. The focus is on knowledge transfer rather than knowledge generation but with a dual emphasis on the dissemination and sustainability of EBP that have been tested and shown effective as well as the adaptation of practice-based interventions into evidence-based programs. This Research Topic draws upon grand-scale efforts to deliver these programs, and include both U.S. as well as international examples. Commentaries discuss processes in the development and measurement of EBP and reflect perspectives from program developers and major national and regional funders of EBP as well as professionals and practitioners in the field. The full-length articles focus on four major programmatic areas: (1) chronic disease self-management programs; (2) fall prevention programs; (3) general wellness and physical activity programs; and (4) mental health programs. Additionally, articles are included to discuss cross-cutting issues related to building partnerships and the research infrastructure for the implementation, evaluation, and dissemination of evidence-based programming. The intent of this Research Topic is to enhance practice, inform policy, and build systems of support and delivery for EBP. It is written for a diverse audience and contains practical implications and recommendations for introducing, delivering, and sustaining EBP in a multitude of settings.

Biological Hazards in Food

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451135 Year: Pages: 277 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-113-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The ingestion of food containing pathogenic microorganisms (i.e. bacteria and their toxins, fungi, viruses) and parasites can cause food-borne diseases in humans. A growing number of emerging pathogens, changes of virulence of known pathogens and appearance of antibiotic resistance has recently exposed consumers to a major risk of illness. Also infected people and the environment can spread microorganisms on raw or processed food. Outbreaks of food-borne diseases are often unrecognized, unreported, or not investigated and particularly in developing countries their agents and sources are mostly unknown. Surveillance and analytical methods aiming at their detection are to be hoped, as well as good strategies to struggle against these threats. This E-book is subdivided in chapters regarding to pathogenic and spoiling microorganisms, chemical hazards produced by biological agents and food safety management systems.

Crop Traits for Defense against Pests and Disease: Durability, Breakdown and Future Prospects

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451562 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-156-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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With global populations expected to exceed 9.2 billion by 2050 and available land and water resources devoted to crop production dwindling, we face significant challenges to secure global food security. Only 12 plant species feed 80% of the world’s population, with just three crop species (wheat, rice and maize) accounting for food consumed by 50% of the global population. Annual losses to crop pests and pathogens are significant, thought to be equivalent to that required to feed a billion people, at a time when crop productivity has plateaued. With pesticide applications becoming increasingly unfeasible on cost, efficacy and environmental grounds, there is growing interest in exploiting plant resistance and tolerance traits for crop protection. Indeed, mankind has been selectively breeding plants for desirable traits for thousands of years. However, resistance and tolerance traits have not always been those most desired, and in many cases have been inadvertently lost during the domestication process: crops have been effectively ‘disarmed by domestication’. Moreover, mechanistic understanding of how resistance and tolerance traits operate is often incomplete, which makes identifying the right combination for crop protection difficult. We aimed to address this Research Topic by inviting authors to contribute their knowledge of appropriate resistance and tolerance traits, explore what is known about durability and breakdown of defensive traits and, finally, asking what are the prospects for exploiting these traits for crop protection. The research topic summarised in this book addresses some of the most important issues in the future sustainability of global crop production.

New Models of Care for Patients with Severe Mental Illness - Bridging In- and Outpatients

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454365 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-436-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Over the past years, psychiatric services have been continuously faced with the challenge of providing comprehensive care to people suffering from severe mental illnesses. Legal and conceptual advances like the UN convention on the rights of persons with disabilities or the concept of recovery have rendered this challenge more actual and urgent than ever. However, psychiatric institutions often show only low levels of cooperation and integration between their different services. Hence, they need to develop new ways of bridging all sectors of care in order to help people most in need on their way to recovery and full inclusion in society.In this research topic, European researchers and clinicians present new ways of dealing with this essential issue by developing strategies and interventions on both institutional and non-institutional levels. The nine contributions of this ebook thus reflect actual clinical and conceptual considerations. They all aim at improving quality of care and providing adequate support to people suffering from severe mental illness.

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