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Neuroanatomy for the XXIst Century

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199167 Year: Pages: 199 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-916-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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An explosion of new techniques with vastly improved visualization and sensitivity is leading a veritable revolution in modern neuroanatomy. Basic questions related to cell types, input localization, and connectivity are being re-visited and tackled with significantly more accurate and higher resolution experimental approaches. A major goal of this e-Book is thus to highlight in one place the impressive range of available techniques, even as these are fast becoming routine. This is not meant as a technical review, however, but rather will project the technical explosion as indicative of a field now in a vibrant state of renewal. Thus, contributions will be mainly research articles using the newer techniques. A second goal is to showcase what has become the conspicuous interdisciplinary reach of the field: neuroanatomical standards and the close association of structure-function and underlying circuitry mechanisms are increasingly relevant to investigations in development, physiology, and disease. Another feature of this Research Topic is that it includes a breadth of cross-species contributions from investigators working with rodent, nonhuman primate, and human brains. This is important since most of our current knowledge of brain structure has been obtained from experimental animals. However, recent technical advances, coupled with researcher willingness to use the human tissue available, will undoubtedly lead to major advances in the near future regarding human brain mapping and connectomes. Thus, of particular interest will be the methods that can help to define general wiring principles in the brain, both structural and functional. Overall, the state of the field is: exciting.

In Vivo Imaging in Pharmacological Research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452378 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-237-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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The discovery and development of a biological active molecule with therapeutic properties is an ever increasing complex task, highly unpredictable at the early stages and marked, in the end, by high rates of failure. As a consequence, the overall process leading to the production of a successful drug is very costly. The improvement of the net outcome in drug discovery and development would require, amongst other important factors, a good understanding of the molecular events that characterize the disease or pathology in order to better identify likely targets of interest, to optimize the interaction of an active agent (small molecule or macromolecule of natural or synthetic origin) with those targets, and to facilitate the study of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity of an active agent in suitable models and in human subjects. The objective of this Research Topic is to highlight new developments and applications of imaging techniques with the objective of performing pharmacological studies in vivo, in animal models and in humans. In the domain of drug discovery, the pharmacological and biomedical questions constitute the center of attention. In this sense, it is fundamental to keep in mind the strengths and limitations of each analytical or imaging technique. At the end, the judicious application of the technique with the aim of supporting the search for answers to manifold questions arising during a long and painstaking path provides a continuous role for imaging within the complex area of drug discovery and development.

The Chemistry of Imaging Probes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455980 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-598-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Over the past decades, the field of molecular imaging has been rapidly growing involving multiple disciplines such as medicine, biology, chemistry, pharmacology and biomedical engineering. Any molecular imaging procedure requires an imaging probe that is an agent used to visualize, characterize and quantify biological processes in living systems. Such a probe typically consists of an agent that usually produces signal for imaging purpose, a targeting moiety, and a linker connecting the targeting moiety and the signaling agent.Many challenging problems of molecular imaging can be addressed by exploiting the great possibilities offered by modern synthetic organic and coordination chemistry and the powerful procedures provided by conjugation chemistry. Thus, chemistry plays a decisive role in the development of this cutting-edge methodology.Currently, the diagnostic imaging modalities include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), Ultrasound (US), Nuclear Imaging (PET, SPECT), Optical Imaging (OI) and Photoacoustic Imaging (PAI). Each of these imaging modalities has its own advantages and disadvantages, and therefore, a multimodal approach combining two techniques is often adopted to generate complementary anatomical and functional information of the disease. The basis for designing imaging probes for a given application is dictated by the chosen imaging modality, which in turn is dependent upon the concentration and localization profile (vascular, extracellular matrix, cell membrane, intracellular, near or at the cell nucleus) of the target molecule. The development of high-affinity ligands and their conjugation to the targeting vector is also one of the key steps for pursuing efficient molecular imaging probes. Other excellent reviews, text and monographs describe the principles of biomedical imaging, focusing on molecular biology or on the physics behind the techniques. This Research Topic aims to show how chemistry can offer molecular imaging the opportunity to express all its potential.

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