Search results: Found 12

Listing 1 - 10 of 12 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Accessing Conceptual Representations for Speaking

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450114 Year: Pages: 141 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-011-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

For speaking, words in the lexicon are somehow activated from conceptual representations but we know surprisingly little about how this works precisely. Which of the attributes of the concept DOG (e.g. BARKS, IS WALKED WITH A LEASH, CARNIVORE, ANIMATE) have to be activated in a given situation to be able to select the word ‘dog’? Are there things we know about dogs that are always activated for naming and others that are only activated in certain contexts or even never? To date, investigations on lexical access in speaking have largely focused on the effects of distractor nouns on the naming latency of a target noun. We have learned that distractors from the same semantic category (e.g. ‘cat’) hinder naming, but associatively related distractors (‘leash’) may facilitate or hinder naming. However, associatively related words can have all kinds of semantic relationships to a target word, and, with few exceptions, the effects of specific semantic relationships other than membership in the same category as the target concept have not been systematically investigated. This special issue aims at moving forward towards a more detailed account of how precisely conceptual information is used to access the lexicon in speaking and what corresponding format of conceptual representations needs to be assumed.

The cognitive and neural organisation of speech processing

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197750 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-774-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Speech production and perception are two of the most complex actions humans perform. The processing of speech is studied across various fields and using a wide variety of research approaches. These fields include, but are not limited to, (socio)linguistics, phonetics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology, and cognitive neuroscience. Research approaches range from behavioural studies to neuroimaging techniques such as Magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography (MEG/EEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), as well as neurophysiological approaches, such as the recording of Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs), and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Each of these approaches provides valuable information about specific aspects of speech processing. Behavioural testing can inform about the nature of the cognitive processes involved in speech processing, neuroimaging methods show where (fMRI and MEG) in the brain these processes take place and/or elucidate on the time-course of activation of these brain areas (EEG and MEG), while neurophysiological methods (MEPs and TMS) can assess critical involvement of brain regions in the cognitive process. Yet, what is currently unclear is how speech researchers can combine methods such that a convergent approach adds to theory/model formulation, above and beyond the contribution of individual component methods? We expect that such combinations of approaches will significantly forward theoretical development in the field. The present research topic comprise a collection of manuscripts discussing the cognitive and neural organisation of speech processing, including speech production and perception at the level of individual speech sounds, syllables, words, and sentences. Our goal was to use findings from a variety of disciplines, perspectives, and approaches to gain a more complete picture of the organisation of speech processing. The contributions are grouped around the following five main themes: 1) Spoken language comprehension under difficult listening conditions; 2) Sub-lexical processing; 3) Sensorimotor processing of speech; 4) Speech production. The contributions used a variety of research approaches, including behavioural experiments, fMRI, EEG, MEG, and TMS. Twelve of the 14 contributions were on speech perception processing, and the remaining two examined speech production. This Research Topic thus displays a wide variety of topics and research methods and this comprehensive approach allows an integrative understanding of currently available evidence as well as the identification of concrete venues for future research.

Keywords

Speech --- Perception --- production --- TMS --- fMRI --- EEG --- MEG --- behavioural

Gut Health: The New Paradigm in Animal Production?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450299 Year: Pages: 163 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-029-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Gut health and specifically the gut microbiome-host interaction is currently a major research topic across the life sciences. In the case of animal sciences research into animal production and health, the gut has been a continuous area of interest. Production parameters such as growth and feed efficiency are entirely dependent on optimum gut health. In addition, the gut is a major immune organ and one of the first lines of defense in animal disease. Recent changes in animal production management and feed regulations, both regulatory and consumer driven, have placed added emphasis on finding ways to optimize gut health in novel and effective ways. In this volume we bring together original research and review articles covering three major categories of gut health and animal production: the gut microbiome, mucosal immunology, and feed-based interventions. Included within these categories is a broad range of scientific expertise and experimental approaches that span food animal production. Our goal in bringing together the articles on this research topic is to survey the current knowledge on gut health in animal production. The following 15 articles include knowledge and perspectives from researchers from multiple countries and research perspectives, all with the central goal of improving animal health and production.

Mechanisms of Persistence, Survival, and Transmission of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens in Production Animals

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455454 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-545-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Foodborne illness resulting from food production animals is a global health concern, and the Centers for Disease Control estimate that one in six Americans will become sick with a foodborne illness each year. Of course there are numerous causes for these outbreaks, but contamination from a food production animal is certainly one source. Understanding the host-pathogen interaction and how foodborne bacterial pathogens establish a persistent infection and evade host immune responses will be pivotal in reducing the instance of foodborne illness traced back to a food production animal source.In this volume, we bring together original research and review articles covering some of the key issues surrounding the mechanisms of persistence, survival, and transmission of bacterial foodborne pathogens in production animals. The research focused on poultry and specifically addressed antibiotic resistance, Salmonella colonization, pathogen reduction strategies using pre- or probiotics, pathogen evasion, and post-harvest intervention and pathogen testing. The following 11 articles are fine examples of the multidisciplinary approaches that will be required to address and understand the complex interplay between food safety and animal production.

Role and prevalence of antibiosis and the related resistance genes in the environment

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195213 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-521-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

It becomes increasingly clear that the basis of antibiotic resistance problem among bacterial pathogens is not confined to the borders of clinical microbiology but has broader ecological and evolutionary associations. This Research Topic “Role and prevalence of antibiosis and the related resistance genes in the environment” in Frontiers in Microbiology, section Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy, presents the examples of occurrence and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in the wide range of environments, from the grasslands of the Colombian Andes, to the dairy farms and small animal veterinary hospitals in the United Stated, and to the various environments of Continental Europe and Indochina. Besides, various genetic mechanisms and selection/co-selection factors contributing to the dissemination and maintenance of antibiotic resistance genes are presented. The topic is finalized by the mathematical modeling approach to access the probability of rare horizontal gene transfer events in bacterial populations.

Phonological and phonetic competence: between grammar, signal processing, and neural activity

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198092 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-809-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The present collection of articles brings together experimental work in the field of segmental and prosodic processing and representation in phonology and phonetics. Contributions focus on the exploration of human cognitive, articulatory, and perceptual abilities dealing with all types of phonetic and phonological entities. Main topics of investigation include: (1) sounds and sound-changing processes—systemic and functional aspects, (2) prosodic units such as syllables and metrical feet—systemic properties, processing, and phonetic consequences, and (3) tones as building blocks of the sentence melody—their relation to the level of linguistic expressions on the one hand, their phonetic realization (e.g., tonal height and contours) and perception on the other hand. In addition, topics (1) and (2) extend to the question how phonological representations are stored in the mental lexicon: specified minimally in terms of categorical phonological information or as variable phonetic imprint of the exemplars in the input. Diagonally to these thematic domains, the present Research Topic shows a strong focus on up-to-date experimental approaches, going far beyond traditional linguistic analysis, and making use of psycho- and neurolinguistic methodologies.

Improving Animal Welfare through Genetic Selection

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198832 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-883-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In livestock species, breeding goals are aimed primarily at improvement of production traits. However, there are a number of examples where selection for high production efficiency has resulted in reduced welfare through unfavorable outcomes in health and fitness characteristics. These effects raise questions about what is ethically acceptable in animal breeding. Welfare problems may be experienced when physiological balance is disturbed by genetic selection for high production alone, by a mismatch between the environmental challenges and the range of coping responses available to an animal, or from a mismatch between the animal’s needs and their degree of satisfaction. This may be resolved by either improving the environment to support the animal, but also by providing the animal, through genetic selection, with means to adapt to the production environment. The Standing Committee of the European Convention for the Protection of Animals kept for Farming Purposes emphasizes that breeding goals should include health and welfare. The Farm Animal Welfare Council pleas for a greater emphasis in breeding programs on traits associated with good welfare. However, although breeding goals in most farm animal species have been broadened beyond production traits to include functional traits, behavioral traits are rarely included despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. It is the goal of the present Research Topic to bring together experimental and theoretical research focusing on the genetics of welfare traits and the possibility to improve animal welfare through selection. This topic presents an overview of the relationship between selection for high production and livestock robustness, examples of improving robustness through the introduction of novel traits in livestock breeding, and a discussion on selection methods to address welfare issues. The discussion on sustainability of breeding practices is very alive today and will remain to be an important part of the debate in the future.

Bridging Reading Aloud and Speech Production

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198955 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-895-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

For decades, human cognition involved in reading aloud and speech production has been investigated extensively (a quote search of the two in google scholar produces about 83,000 and 255,000 results, respectively). This large amount of research has produced quite detailed descriptions of the cognitive mechanisms that allow people to speak or to read aloud a word. However, despite the fact that reading aloud and speech production share some processes – generation of phonology and preparation of a motor speech response – the research in this two areas seems to have taken parallel and independent tracks, with almost no contact between the two. The present Research Topic takes an initial step towards building a bridge that will link the two research areas, as we believe that such an endeavour is essential for moving forward in our understanding of how the mind/brain processes words. To this aim, we encourage contributions exploring the relation between speech production and reading aloud. The questions the Research Topic should address include, but are not limited to, the following: To what extent are speech production and word reading/reading aloud similar? Are there some shared components and/or mechanisms between the two process? Is the time course of the (supposed) shared mechanisms activation similar in the two processes? How does the different input (conceptual vs. orthographic) interact with the types of information that reading and speaking share (semantic and phonological knowledge, articulatory codes)? How does a difference in the input affect the (supposed) common stages of processing (i.e., phonological encoding, and articulatory planning and execution)? We welcome any kind of contribution (e.g., original research article, review, opinion) that answers the above or other questions related to the Topic.

Language beyond Words: The Neuroscience of Accent

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451074 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-107-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Language learning also implies the acquisition of a set of phonetic rules and prosodic contours which define the accent in that language. While often considered as merely accessory, accent is an essential component of psychological identity as it embodies information on origin, culture, and social class. Speaking with a non-standard (foreign) accent is not inconsequential because it may negatively impact communication and social adjustment. Nevertheless, the lack of a formal definition of accent may explain that, as compared with other aspects of language, it has received relatively little attention until recently. During the past decade there has been increasing interest in the analysis of accent from a neuroscientific perspective. This e-book integrates data from different scientific frameworks. The reader will find fruitful research on new models of accent processing, how learning a new accent proceeds, and the role of feedback on accent learning in healthy subjects. In addition, information on accent changes in pathological conditions including developmental and psychogenic foreign accent syndromes as well as the description of a new variant of foreign accent syndrome is also included. It is anticipated that the articles in this e-book will enhance the understanding of accent as a linguistic phenomenon, the neural networks supporting it and potential interventions to accelerate acquisition or relearning of native accents.

Components of the language-ready brain

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198931 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-893-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This volume highlights new avenues of research in the language sciences, and particularly, in the neurobiology of language. The term “language-ready brain” stresses, on the one hand, the importance of a brain-based description of our species’ linguistic capacity, and, on the other, the need to appreciate the crucial role culture plays in shaping the linguistic systems children acquire and adults use. For this reason, the focus is not put on language per se, but on our learning biases and cognitive pre-dispositions toward language. Both brain and culture are considered at two crucial levels of inquiry: phylogeny and ontogeny. In a fast-growing field like the language sciences and specifically, language evolution studies, this book has tried to capture several of the most exciting topics explored currently, sowing seeds for future investigations.

Listing 1 - 10 of 12 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (12)


License

CC by (12)


Language

english (12)


Year
From To Submit

2018 (2)

2017 (2)

2016 (7)

2015 (1)