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How Fear and Stress Shape the Mind

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198719 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-871-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The experience of fear and stress leaves an indelible trace on the brain. This indelible trace is observed as both changes in behavior and changes in neuronal structure and function. Fear and stress interact on many levels. The experience of stress may lead to the formation of a fearful memory trace of a place or reminder cue, and fearful memory formation is regulated by the extent of concurrent stress. The concurrent experience of fear and stress may amplify fear and slow fear extinction which may lead to pathology. Fear memory formation involves changes in synaptic plasticity while stress and glucocorticoids change neuronal structure. Thus, both neurons and synapses are changed. These changes can be identified, visualised and mapped within focused microcircuits. In this Research Topic we focus on current advances in both the neurobiology and behavioral consequences of fear and stress.

Biofilms from a Food Microbiology Perspective: Structures, Functions and Control Strategies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451081 Year: Pages: 197 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-108-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Materials and equipment in food processing industries are colonized by surface-associated microbial communities called biofilms. In these biostructures microorganisms are embedded in a complex organic matrix composed essentially of polysaccharides, nucleic acids and proteins. This organic shield contributes to the mechanical biofilm cohesion and triggers tolerance to environmental stresses such as dehydratation or nutrient deprivation. Notably, cells within a biofilm are more tolerant to sanitation processes and the action of antimicrobial agents than their free living (or planktonic) counterparts. Such properties make conventional cleaning and disinfection protocols normally not effective in eradicating these biocontaminants. Biofilms are thus a continuous source of persistent microorganisms, including spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, leading to repeated contamination of processed food with important economic and safety impact. Alternatively, in some particular settings, biofilm formation by resident or technological microorganisms can be desirable, due to possible enhancement of food fermentations or as a means of bioprotection against the settlement of pathogenic microorganisms. In the last decades substantial research efforts have been devoted to unravelling mechanisms of biofilm formation, deciphering biofilm architecture and understanding microbial interactions within those ecosystems. However, biofilms present a high level of complexity and many aspects remain yet to be fully understood. A lot of attention has been also paid to the development of novel strategies for preventing or controlling biofilm formation in industrial settings. Further research needs to be focused on the identification of new biocides effective against biofilm-associated microorganisms, the development of control strategies based on the inhibition of cell-to-cell communication, and the potential use of bacteriocins, bacteriocin-producing bacteria, phage, and natural antimicrobials as anti-biofilm agents, among others. This Research Topic aims to provide an avenue for dissemination of recent advances within the “biofilms” field, from novel knowledge on mechanisms of biofilm formation and biofilm architecture to novel strategies for biofilm control in food industrial settings.

Biological Hazards in Food

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451135 Year: Pages: 277 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-113-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The ingestion of food containing pathogenic microorganisms (i.e. bacteria and their toxins, fungi, viruses) and parasites can cause food-borne diseases in humans. A growing number of emerging pathogens, changes of virulence of known pathogens and appearance of antibiotic resistance has recently exposed consumers to a major risk of illness. Also infected people and the environment can spread microorganisms on raw or processed food. Outbreaks of food-borne diseases are often unrecognized, unreported, or not investigated and particularly in developing countries their agents and sources are mostly unknown. Surveillance and analytical methods aiming at their detection are to be hoped, as well as good strategies to struggle against these threats. This E-book is subdivided in chapters regarding to pathogenic and spoiling microorganisms, chemical hazards produced by biological agents and food safety management systems.

Microbiota of Grapes: Positive and Negative Role on Wine Quality

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451210 Year: Pages: 231 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-121-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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During spontaneous food/beverage fermentations, the microbiota associated with the raw material has a considerable importance: this microbial consortium evolves in reason of the nutrient content and of the physical, chemical, and biological determinants present in the food matrix, shaping fermentation dynamics with significant impacts on the ‘qualities’ of final productions. The selection from the indigenous micro-biodiversity of ‘virtuous’ ecotypes that coupled pro-technological and biotechnological aptitudes provide the basis for the formulation of ‘tailored’ starter cultures. In the fermenting food and beverage arena, the wine sector is generally characterized by the generation of a high added value. Together with a pronounced seasonality, this feature strongly contributes to the selection of a large group of starter cultures. In the last years, several studies contributed to describe the complexity of grapevine-associated microbiota using both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The grape-associated microbial communities continuously change during the wine-making process, with different dominances that correspond to the main biotechnological steps that take place in wine. In order to simplify, following a time trend, four major dominances can be mainly considered: non-Saccharomyces, Saccharomyces, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and spoilage microbes. The first two dominances come in succession during the alcoholic fermentation: the impact of Saccharomyces (that are responsible of key enological step of ethanol production) can be complemented/integrated by the contributions of compatible non-Saccharomyces strains. Lactic acid bacteria constitute the malolactic consortium responsible of malolactic fermentation, a microbial bioconversion often desired in wine (especially in red wine production). Finally, the fourth dominance, the undesired microbiota, represents a panel of microorganisms that, coupling spoilage potential to the resistance to the harsh conditions typical of wine environment, can cause important economic losses. In each of these four dominances a complex microbial biodiversity has been described. The studies on the enological significance of the micro-biodiversity connected with each of the four dominances highlighted the presence of a dichotomy: in each consortia there are species/strains that, in reason of their metabolisms, are able to improve wine ‘qualities’ (resource of interest in starter cultures design), and species/strains that with their metabolism are responsible of depreciation of wine. Articles describing new oenological impacts of yeasts and bacteria belonging to the four main categories above mentioned (non-Saccharomyces, Saccharomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, and spoilage microbes) are welcome. Moreover, in this Research Topic, we encourage mini-review submissions on topics of immediate interest in wine microbiology that link microbial biodiversity with positive/negative effects in wine.

Industrial and Host Associated Stress Responses in Food Microbes. Implications for Food Technology and Food Safety

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452934 Year: Pages: 295 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-293-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Throughout the food processing chain and after ingestion by the host, food associated bacteria have to cope with a range of stress factors such as thermal and/or non-thermal inactivation treatments, refrigeration temperatures, freeze-drying, high osmolarity, acid pH in the stomach or presence of bile salts in the intestine, that threaten bacterial survival. The accompanying plethora of microbial response and adaptation phenomena elicited by these stresses has important implications for food technology and safety. Indeed, while resistance development of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms may impose health risks for the consumer and impart great economic losses to food industries, reduced survival of probiotic bacteria may strongly compromise their claimed health benefit attributes. As a result, substantial research efforts have been devoted in the last decades to unravel the mechanisms underlying stress response and resistance development in food associated microorganisms in order to better predict and improve (i) the inactivation of foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms on the one hand and (ii) the robustness and performance of beneficial microorganisms on the other. Moreover, the recent implementation of system-wide omics and (single-)cell biology approaches is greatly boosting our insights into the modes of action underlying microbial inactivation and survival. This Research Topic aims to provide an avenue for dissemination of recent advances within the field of microbial stress response and adaptation, with a particular focus not only on food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms but also on beneficial microbes in foods.

Game Changer - Next Generation Sequencing and its Impact on Food Microbiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454631 Year: Pages: 302 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-463-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies (NGS) are revolutionizing the field of food microbiology. Microbial whole genome sequencing (WGS) can provide identification, characterization, and subtyping of pathogens for epidemiological investigations at a level of precision previously not possible. This allows for connections and source attribution to be inferred between related isolates that may be overlooked by traditional techniques. The archiving and global sharing of genome sequences allow for retrospective analysis of virulence genes, antimicrobial resistance markers, mobile genetic elements and other novel genes. The advent of high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, in combination with the advantages offered by massively parallel second-generation sequencing for metagenomics, enable intensive studies on the microbiomes of food products and the impact of foods on the human microbiome. These studies may one day lead to the development of reliable culture-independent methods for food monitoring and surveillance. Similarly, RNA-seq has provided insights into the transcriptomes and hence the behaviour of bacterial pathogens in food, food processing environments, and in interaction with the host at a resolution previously not achieved through the use of microarrays and/or RT-PCR. The vast un-tapped potential applications of NGS along with its rapidly declining costs, give this technology the ability to contribute significantly to consumer protection, global trade facilitation, and increased food safety and security. Despite the rapid advances, challenges remain. How will NGS data be incorporated into our existing global food safety infrastructure? How will massive NGS data be stored and shared globally? What bioinformatics solutions will be used to analyse and optimise these large data sets? This Research Topic discusses recent advances in the field of food microbiology made possible through the use of NGS.

The Safety and Efficacy of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Development and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196999 Year: Pages: 68 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-699-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Noninvasive brain stimulation (including Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Transcranial Current Brain Stimulation (TCS)) can be used both experimentally and therapeutically. In the experimental domain TMS can be applied in single pulses to depolarize a small population of neurons in a targeted brain region. This protocol can be used, for example, to map cortical motor outputs, study central motor conduction time, or evaluate the cortical silent period (a measure of intracortical inhibition) all of which are relevant to neurodevelopment. TMS can also be applied in pairs of pulses (paired pulse stimulation, ppTMS) where two pulses are presented in rapid succession to study intracortical inhibition and facilitation. Trains of repeated TMS (rTMS) pulses can be applied at various stimulation frequencies and patterns to modulate local cortical excitability beyond the duration of the stimulation itself. Depending on the parameters of stimulation the excitability can be either facilitated or suppressed. TCS (including Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), alternating current (tACS), and random noise current stimulation (tRNS) also have the potential to modulate cortical excitability and have also been used to study and modulate cortical activity in healthy and patient populations. The after-effects of rTMS and TCS are thought to be related to changes in efficacy (in either the positive or negative direction) of synaptic connections of the neurons being stimulated, thus these techniques have been used to study and modulate cortical plasticity mechanisms in a number of populations. Recently, researchers have begun to apply these techniques to the study of neurodevelopmental mechanisms as well as the pathophysiology and development of novel treatments for neurodevelopmental disorders. Though there is much promise, caution is warranted given the vulnerability of pediatric and clinical populations and the potential that these techniques have to modify circuit development in a cortex that is in a very dynamic state. This Research Topic hopes to provide an opportunity to share ideas across areas (human and animal researchers, clinicians and basic scientists). We are particularly interested in papers that address issues of choosing a protocol (intensity, frequency, location, coil geometry etc.), populations where noninvasive brain stimulation may have direct impact on diagnostics and treatment, as well as the safety and ethics of applying these techniques in pediatric populations. As many may not be aware of the potential and limitations of noninvasive brain stimulation and its use for research and treatment in this area, this Research Topic promises to have broad appeal. Submissions for all Frontiers article types are encouraged.

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