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Data-Based Radiation Oncology - Design of Clinical Trials

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454389 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-438-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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In radiation oncology as in many other specialties clinical trials are essential to investigate new therapy approaches. Usually, preparation for a prospective clinical trial is extremely time consuming until ethics approval is obtained. To test a new treatment usually many years pass before it can be implemented in the routine care. During that time, already new interventions emerge, new drugs appear on the market, technical & physical innovations are being implemented, novel biology driven concepts are translated into clinical approaches while we are still investigating the ones from years ago. Another problem is associated with molecular diagnostics and the growing amount of tumor specific biomarkers which allows for a better stratification of patient subgroups. On the other side, this may result in a much longer time for patient recruiting and consequently in larger multicenter trials. Moreover, all of the relevant data must be readily available for treatment decision making, treatment as well as follow-up, and ultimately for trial evaluation. This challenges even more for agreed standards in data acquisition, quality and management. How could we change the way currently clinical trials are performed in a way they are safe and ethically justifiable and speed up the initiation process, so we can provide new and better treatments faster for our patients?Further, while we rely on various quantitative information handling distributed, large heterogeneous amounts of data efficiently is very important. Thus data management becomes a strong focus. A good infrastructure helps to plan, tailor and conduct clinical trials in a way they are easy and quickly analyzable.In this research topic we want to discuss new ideas for intelligent trial designs and concepts for data management.

The Foundation of Precision Medicine: Integration of Electronic Health Records with Nenomics Through Basic, Clinical, and Translational Research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198726 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-872-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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This eBook contains the 19 articles that were part of a Special Topic in Frontiers in Genetics entitled “Genetics Research in Electronic Health Records Linked to DNA Biobanks”. The Special Issue was published on-line in 2014-2015 and contained papers representing the diverse research ongoing in the integration of electronic health records (EHR) with genomics through basic, clinical, and translational research. We have divided the eBook into four Chapters. Chapter 1 describes the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network and its contri-bution to genomics. It highlights methodological questions related to large data sets such as imputation and population stratification. Chapter 2 describes the results of genetic studies on different diseases for which all the phenotypic information was extracted from the EHR with highly specific ePhenotyping algorithms. Chapter 3 focuses on more complex analyses of the genome including copy number variants (CNV), pleiotropy com-bined with phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS), and epistasis (gene-gene interactions). Chapter 4 discusses the use of genetic data together with EHR-derived clinical data in clinical settings, and how to return genetic results to patients and providers. It also contains a comprehensive review on genetic risk scores. We have included mostly Original Research Articles in the eBook, but also Reviews and Methods papers on the relevant topics of analyzing and integrating genomic data. The release of this eBook is timely, since several countries are launching Precision Medicine initiatives. Precision Medicine is a new concept in patient care taking into account individual variability in genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors, when treating diseases or trying to prevent them from developing. It has become an important focus for biomedical, clinical and translational informatics. The papers presented in this eBook are well positioned to educate the readers about Precision Medicine and to demonstrate the potential study designs, methods, strategies, and applications where this type of research can be performed successfully. The ultimate goal is to improve diagnostics and provide better, more targeted care to the patient.

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in functional research of prefrontal cortex

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199440 Year: Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-944-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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This e-book includes the latest outcomes produced by a broad range of fNIRS research with activation of prefrontal cortex, from methodological one to clinical one, providing a forum for scientists planning functional studies of prefrontal brain activation. Reading this book, one will find the possibility that fNIRS could replace fMRI in the near future, and realize that even our aesthetic feeling is measurable. This will serve as a reference repository of knowledge from these fields as well as a conduit of information from leading researchers. In addition it offers an extensive cross-referencing system that will facilitate search and retrieval of information about NIRS measurements in activation studies. Researchers interested in fNIRS would benefit from an overview about its potential utilities for future research directions.

Advances in the Prevention and Treatment of Inflammation-Associated Preterm Birth

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199686 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-968-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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After decades of intensive research and over 10,000 publications, preterm birth remains a major global obstetric healthcare problem. Each year, early birth is responsible for the deaths of more than one million infants worldwide and is a major cause of life-long disability. Preterm birth places an enormous financial burden on our healthcare systems, resulting in long-term adverse health outcomes and lost productivity for many people. Preterm birth is a syndrome, associated with several different aetiologies; hence, potential treatment strategies need to be matched to pathophysiology in order to be effective. There is now unequivocal evidence that inflammation is causally involved in a majority of spontaneous preterm deliveries. However, the triggers of inflammation, and the strategies by which it can be safely and effectively prevented and treated, remain the subject of ongoing investigation and debate. While intraamniotic infection is an important cause of inflammation-associated preterm birth, particularly in very preterm deliveries, ‘sterile’ inflammation is actually a more common finding associated with preterm birth. It is likely that the nature, localisation, timing and extent of the inflammatory insult all determine the obstetric outcome and degree of risk to the fetus. These factors will also influence the success of approaches that might be employed to achieve better pregnancy outcomes. Despite our increased understanding of the causes and significance of intrauterine inflammation, we have yet to translate this knowledge into effective therapeutic strategies for preventing prematurity and mitigating its consequences for the neonate. In this Research Topic we review recent progress in treating and preventing inflammation-associated preterm birth, approaching the topic from both the causal and therapeutic perspectives. With global attention increasingly focused on the need to translate knowledge discovery into clinical translation, we hope this EBook will provide a stimulating and timely discussion that will focus research and lead to improved healthcare outcomes for women and children.

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