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Fragmentation in Sleep and Mind: Linking Dissociative Symptoms, Sleep, and Memory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454488 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-448-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry --- Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Fragmented, dissociated consciousness can characterize the mind in both wake and sleep states. Dissociative symptoms, during sleep, include vivid dreaming, nightmares, and alterations in objective sleep parameters (e.g., lengthening of REM sleep). During waking hours, dissociative symptoms exhibit disparate characteristics encompassing memory problems, excessive daydreaming, absentmindedness, and impairments and discontinuities in perceptions of the self, identity, and the environment. Llewellyn has theorized that a progressive and enduring de-differentiation of wake and dream states of consciousness eventually results in schizophrenia; a lesser degree of de-differentiation may have implications for dissociative symptoms.Against a background of de-differentiation between the dream and wake states, the papers in this volume link consciousness, memory, and mental illness with a special interest for dissociative symptoms.

Fast Ionic Conductors and Solid-Solid Interfaces Designed for Next Generation Solid-State Batteries

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456475 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-647-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The EV Everywhere Grand Challenge requires a breakthrough in energy storage technology. State-of-the-art Li-ion technology is currently used in low volume production plug-in hybrid and niche high performance vehicles; however, the widespread adoption of electrified powertrains requires a four-fold increase in performance, 25% lower cost, and safer batteries without the possibility of combustion. One approach for this target is to develop solid-state batteries (SSBs) offering improved performance, reduced peripheral mass, and unprecedented safety. SSB could offer higher energy density, by enabling new cell designs, such as bipolar stacking, leading to reduced peripheral mass and volume. To enable SSBs, a crucial requirement is a fast-ion conducting solid electrolyte. To date, myriad solid-state electrolytes have been reported exhibiting Li ion conductivities approaching those of today’s liquid electrolyte membranes. Moreover, several new materials are reported to have wide electrochemical window and single-ion mobility. Leveraging decades of research focused on Li-based electrodes for Li-ion batteries, the discovery of new solid-state electrolytes could enable access to these electrodes; specifically, Li metal and high voltage electrodes (>5V). However, transitioning SSBs from the laboratory to EVs requires answers to fundamental questions such as: (1) how does Li-ion transport through the solid electrolyte / solid electrode interface work? (2) will solid electrolytes enable bulk-scale Li metal anode and high voltage cathodes?, and (3) how will ceramic-based cells be manufactured in large-format battery packs? The purpose of this Research Topic is to provide new insights obtained through the fundamental understanding of materials chemistry, electrochemistry, advanced analysis and computational simulations. We hope these aspects will summarize current challenges and provide opportunities for future research to develop the next generation SSBs.

Social Cognition, Motivation, and Interaction How Do People Respond to Threats in Social Interactions?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453740 Year: Pages: 227 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-374-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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f we want to understand people’s responses to threats in social interactions we can distinguish between three levels of analysis:On a social level of analysis we can describe people’s interpersonal behavior, on a cognitive level we can identify corresponding information processing mechanisms, and on a neural level we can specify neural systems, which underlie these processes.In this Research Topic we want to present research connecting these three levels of analysis and propose their functional interconnection in social interaction.We propose that threats in social interactions activate basic motivational processes, which manifest in neural processes related to behavioral inhibition vs. activation in a social situation. This shapes our attention to new information, and affects our cognitions about social identities, belief systems and worldviews. These changes in social cognition in turn affect people’s behavior in social interactions and lead to corresponding reactions on behalf of the interaction partner. Thus, we assume that people’s reactions to threat in interactions can be described as sequences of broader attentional processes resulting from basic motivational tendencies leading to specific social cognitions and subsequent behavior within social interactions. We can analyze this sequence in order to contribute to a better understanding of social interactions.The three levels of analyses (social, cognitive, neural) shed light on social interactions from different angles:On the social level we can analyze how the behaviors of the interaction partners mutually affect each other and how this is accompanied by specific cognitive, emotional and motivational processes. On the cognitive level we can analyze people’s perception of a social situation leading to attentional and reasoning processes with regard to their interaction partner/s, which may be accompanied by certain emotional and motivational processes and determines the behavior towards the partner/s. Finally, we can focus on the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes in social interactions.

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