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Astrocyte - Physiology and Pathology

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ISBN: 9789535138853 9789535138860 9789535140771 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69076 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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A team of authors from prestigious academic schools contributed to draw up a project that would give a detailed account of astrocyte's morphology and physiology, examining thoroughly all the astrocyte's types; giving an accurate description of their morphology, location, function in the brain; and illustrating their physiology and pathology in terms of dealing with neurons through ""gliotransmitters,"" ionic channels, and membrane receptors expression. This book gives an overview of the crucial role of astrocytes in the physiology of the CNS and in the pathogenesis of several CNS disorders suggesting that the shift from a neurocentric view to one that incorporates astrocytes in disease models for drug discovery is a critical step in renewing drug development strategies to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

Sex Hormones in Neurodegenerative Processes and Diseases

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ISBN: 9781789230147 9781789230154 Year: Pages: 358 DOI: 10.5772/66585 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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The book provides chapters on sex hormones and their modulation in neurodegenerative processes and pathologies, from basic molecular mechanisms, physiology, gender differences, to neuroprotection and clinical aspects for potential novel pharmacotherapy approaches. The book contains 14 chapters written by authors from various biomedical professions, from basic researchers in biology and physiology to medicine and veterinary medicine, pharmacologists, psychiatrist, etc. Chapters sum up the past and current knowledge on sex hormones, representing original new insights into their role in brain functioning, mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. The book is written for a broad range of audience, from biomedical students to highly profiled medical specialists and biomedical researchers, helping them to expand their knowledge on sex hormones in neurodegenerative processes and opening new questions for further investigation.

Circadian Rhythm - Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms

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ISBN: 9781789233384 9781789233391 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71707 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Circadian clocks are endogenous and temperature-compensating timekeepers that provide temporal organization of biological processes in living organisms. Circadian rhythms allow living organisms to adapt to the daily light cycles associated with Earth's rotation and to anticipate and prepare for precise and regular environmental changes. This book discusses the fundamental advances of how the circadian clock regulates critical biological functions as well as the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling circadian rhythm in living organisms. It also provides new insights into and sheds new light on the current research trends and future research directions related to circadian rhythm. This book provokes interest in many readers, researchers and scientists, who can find this information useful for the advancement of their research works towards a better understanding of circadian rhythm regulatory mechanisms.

Sensory Nervous System

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ISBN: 9781789233582 9781789233599 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.5772/68128 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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The sensory nervous system is of critical importance in our daily lives and contributes to our personal well-being and safety as well as communication with others. However, it is only when disease or injury impair its function that we fully appreciate the relevance of our sensory modalities. During the past decades, research of our senses has seen an ever-growing interest in this exciting field of study. This book provides the reader with an overview of the current state-of-the-art of research of our senses and focuses on the most important evidence-based developments in this area. This book addresses both the physiology and pathophysiology of our sensory nervous system ranging from molecular, cellular, and systems to cognitive and behavioral topics. Individual chapters focus on recent advances in specific areas of sensory systems in different model organisms and humans. All chapters represent recent contributions to the rapidly developing field of sensory science.

Autonomic Nervous System

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ISBN: 9781789841923 9781789841916 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73119 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The autonomic nervous system is one of the most important involuntary control mechanisms that primarily controls and modulates the functions of the visceral organs. The book discusses some of the specificities of the autonomic nervous system in terms of dendritic development in the sympathetic compartment, as well as a detailed description of noradrenergic groups and their key role in the modulation of all antinociceptive and autonomic responses elicited by painful or threatening situations. In the book, only those cases are mentioned that are closely related to disorders or changes of function of the autonomic nervous system. This book can evoke interest in many researchers who want to use the information for the advancement of their research towards a better understanding of the autonomic regulatory mechanisms.

Hypothalamus in Health and Diseases

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789844443 9781789844450 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69694 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The human hypothalamus, a small structure at the base of the brain, has strategic importance for the harmonic function of the human body. It controls the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine function, circadian and circannual rhythms, somatic activities, and behavior, and is situated at the borders between the brain and the body and the brain and the soul, meeting points for mind and body. The hypothalamus is involved in a wide range of higher mental functions, including attention, learning and reinforcement of mnemonic processes, emotional control, mood stability, and cognitive-emotional interactions. It also has a role to play in behavioral disorders, panic reactions, cluster headache, gelastic epilepsy, mental deficiency, periodic disorders, depression, autism, and schizophrenia, and in a substantial number of neurodegenerative diseases. It enlarges greatly the dimensions of the hypothalamic contribution in controlling psychosomatic equilibrium and retaining internal unity of the human existence.

Optic Nerve

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ISBN: 9781789849660 9781789849677 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72958 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The optic nerve is a primary reference for those ophthalmologists and researchers interested in its anatomy and physiology, in the most recent diagnostic techniques, as well as in the clinical management of optic nerve disorders. The book provides a detailed description of the structure and functioning of the optic nerve and attempts at clarifying how anomalies in its development are related with tumor development. The book surveys the most recent diagnostic techniques, such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and highlights how these techniques can be employed to evaluate optic nerve layers as well as lesions compressing the visual pathway. Practical references to optic nerve drusen and the changes in the optic nerve due to diabetic retinopathy are also presented. The book is written in a concise fashion and aims at being a major reference to a broad audience, including students, ophthalmologist consultants, neurologists, researchers, and surgeons concerned with optic nerve diseases.

Neurons - Dendrites and Axons

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789851236 9781789851243 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73741 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The brain is the most complex structure that exists in the universe, consisting of neurons whose function is to receive information through dendrites and transmit information through the axon. In neurosciences one of the main problems that exists are neurodegenerative diseases for which until now there has been no cure. This book is mainly focused on updating the information on the signaling process carried out in the development of axons. Topics such as axon guidance and its interaction with the extracellular matrix are discussed. Other important topics are semaphorins and their relationship with neurodegenerative diseases, and the neurobiology of the gap junction in the dorsal root ganglion. Finally, the topic of bioelectrical interfaces destined to regenerate damaged nerves is covered. The information in this book will be very important both for researchers who work with these issues and doctoral students who are involved in neuroscience.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

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ISBN: 9789533078069 Year: Pages: 740 DOI: 10.5772/1054 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Though considerable amount of research, both pre-clinical and clinical, has been conducted during recent years, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) remains one of the mysterious diseases of the 21st century. Great efforts have been made to develop pathophysiological models and to clarify the underlying pathology, and with novel instruments in genetics and transgenic techniques, the aim for finding a durable cure comes into scope. On the other hand, most pharmacological trials failed to show a benefit for ALS patients. In this book, the reader will find a compilation of state-of-the-art reviews about the etiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of ALS, the molecular basis of disease progression and clinical manifestations, the genetics familial ALS, as well as novel diagnostic criteria in the field of electrophysiology. An overview over all relevant pharmacological trials in ALS patients is also included, while the book concludes with a discussion on current advances and future trends in ALS research.

Synaptic Plasticity

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ISBN: 9789535132332 9789535132349 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.5772/63260 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Nerve cells form thousands of contact points, the synapses, to communicate information with other neurons and target cells. Synapses are sites for changes in brain function through modification of synaptic transmission termed synaptic plasticity. The study of synaptic plasticity has flourished over the years with the advancement of technical breakthroughs and is a timely scientific endeavor today just like it was several decades ago. This book contributes to our understanding of synaptic plasticity at the molecular, biochemical, and cellular systems and behavioral level and informs the reader about its clinical relevance. The book contains ten chapters in three sections: (1) ""Mechanisms of Synaptic Plasticity,"" (2) ""Neural Plasticity,"" and (3) ""Plasticity and Neurological Diseases."" The book provides detailed and current reviews in these different areas written by experts in their respective fields. The mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and its relation to neurological diseases are featured prominently as a recurring theme throughout most chapters. This book will be most useful for neuroscientists and other scientists alike and will contribute to the training of current and future students who find the plastic nervous system as fascinating as many generations before them.

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