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Forest Operations, Engineering and Management

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ISBN: 9783038971849 9783038971856 Year: Pages: 416 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-185-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-19 10:20:31
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.The book gathers 28 quality papers containing new and important knowledge on forest operations, engineering and management. Active forest management is indeed applied through forest engineering, and careful forest tending is conditional to the implementation of sound operational methods, which may guarantee cost-effective management while protecting environmental functionality and worker health. Efficiently managed forest operations offer the highest benefit and the lowest cost, in all fields: financial, social and environmental. While maintaining a cross-disciplinary character, forest engineering represents a special sector of interest within the field of forestry and aims at increasing the overall efficiency of forest operations. Forest engineering often deals with practical issues that have a strong economic impact, and for this reason the industry has always had a strong interest in forest engineering, which explains the close connection between scientists and economic operators. The central role of forest engineering in modern forestry is demonstrated by the many sessions gathered under this general label at the IUFRO 125th Anniversary Congress, which offered a great opportunity for catching up with the latest results of sector research. Over the years, much progress has been done in the field of forest engineering, which has been supported by the dramatic technology advances of the most recent times. The 28 papers contained in this book come from many different countries and cover a large variety of subjects, from pure productivity, to resource availability, operation planning, environmental impacts and operator safety and health. Energy biomass is also represented, as a witness to the growing role of forestry in the quest for renewable energy sources.

Keywords

Harvesting --- Workforce --- Technology --- Simulation --- Biomass

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications

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ISBN: 9783038425380 9783038425397 Year: Pages: VIII, 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-539-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-27 12:48:49
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The issue is dedicated to applications of Deep Brain Stimulation and, in this issue, we would like to highlight the new developments that are taking place in the field. These include the application of new technology to existing indications, as well as ‘new’ indications. We would also like to highlight the most recent clinical evidence from international multicentre trials. The issue will include articles relating to movement disorders, pain, psychiatric indications, as well as emerging indications that are not yet accompanied by clinical evidence. We look forward to your expert contribution to this exciting issue.

Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes

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ISBN: 9783038420385 9783038420392 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-039-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 07:00:06
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Microreactors are small devices with sub-millimeter internals which have superb mass and heat transfer. Initially, they were used for reactions with very high demands on the latter, e.g. very exothermic reactions, gas-liquid reactions with interfacial transport issues, reactions with very fast kinetics which demands even faster mixing, and more. In this way, the processing window was opened widely and, also due to the minute volumes only present in the reaction zone, safe processing under otherwise hazardous conditions was enabled. This includes processing of reactions which are prone to thermal runaway and in the explosive regime. Scale-up of promising reactions and products which was hindered with conventional technology is now possible using the new equipment. This has widened the process development possibilities in chemical industry.In the last years, micro process technology was not only used for the very problematic synthetic issues which formerly had a dead-end position in industry’s process development. Rather, the scope of chemical reactions to be processed in microreactors was considerably widened by exploring new process conditions with regard to temperature, pressure, concentration, solvents, and more. This is commonly referred to as flow chemistry. This allowed to reduce the processing time-scale for many reactions to the minute range or even below which fits well to the residence times of microreactors. In addition, the process integration of several reactions in one flow to a multi-step synthesis has opened a new door in molecular diversity as well as system and process complexity. The same holds for the combination of reactions and separations in micro-flow. To achieve throughputs relevant for industrial production, smart scale-out to milli-flow units has established and supplemented the num­bering-up concept (parallelization of microchannels/-reactors operated under equal conditions).New innovations and enabling technologies need anyhow evaluation and benchmarking with conventional technology on the full-system level. Yet, microreactor technology has in the last years deepened so much into process intensification on a holistic scale that the focus increasingly is given towards the process dimension—to process design and automation, real-case applications, cost analysis, life-cycle assessment, and more. The impact on cost competitiveness and sustainability becomes well assessed.Facing this very recent scientific achievement, the special issue “Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes” of the journal Processes aims to cover recent advances in the development of microreactor and smart-scaled flow processes towards the process level — in the sense as given above.

Religion and the New Technologies

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ISBN: 9783038425304 9783038425311 Year: Pages: VI, 135 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-29 09:40:01
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In April 2000, Bill Joy, co-founder and chief scientist at Sun Microsystems published a controversial article entitled "Why the Future Does not Need Us." Joy called for a moratorium on research in three new technological fields—artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, and genetic engineering. He noted that, while we were poised to make rapid technological advances in each of these areas, our understanding of the ethical questions these technologies would inevitably raise was lagging far behind. The intervening years since Joy’s warning have indeed brought significant advances in each of these fields, advancements that have huge implications for how human life will unfold. Each holds great promise—for new medical cures, for new materials and machines, and for new insights into our world. However, each of these technologies also brings the possibility of great peril. For good or ill, these technologies will change the way we work, live, think, and love. Thus, it makes sense to approach them from a religious perspective. How do these new technologies change our understanding of ourselves, our place in the world, our relationships to one another, the way we face death, or our relationship to God?

Optics and Spectroscopy for Fluid Characterization

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ISBN: 9783038970217 9783038970224 Year: Pages: VIII, 120 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-21 15:51:54
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All over the world, there is a huge and ever-increasing interest in the development and application of optical and spectroscopic techniques to characterize fluids in engineering and science. The large number of review articles that are frequently published in these areas is evidence of this. Recent examples have focused on applications of optical diagnostics to gas phase environments, liquids, and multiphase systems. A key feature of such light-based methods is that they are usually non-intrusive, and hence they do not notably affect the system under investigation. As a consequence, optical techniques have been developed for many decades and represent the gold standard in many fields. The list of individual techniques utilizing absorption, refraction, diffraction and scattering effects is long and so is the list of the parameters that can be determined. The latter includes macroscopic properties such as temperature, chemical composition, thermophysical quantities, and flow velocity, but molecular information, e.g., about isomerism and intermolecular interactions, can also be obtained. This Special Issue entitled “Optics and Spectroscopy for Fluid Characterization” aims to demonstrate the breadth of the field in terms of methodology, as well as applications.

Smart Textiles Production: Overview of Materials, Sensor and Production Technologies for Industrial Smart Textiles

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ISBN: 9783038974970/9783038974987 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: doi.org/10.3390/books978-3-03897-498-7 Language: en
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-22 16:40:44
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The research field of smart textiles is currently witnessinga rapidly growing number of applicationsintegrating intelligent functions in textile substrates.With an increasing amount of new developed productprototypes, the number of materials used and that ofspecially designed production technologies are alsogrowing.This book is intended to provide an overview of materials,production technologies, and product conceptsto different groups concerned with smart textiles. Itwill help designers to understand the possibilities ofsmart textile production, so that they are enabled todesign this type of products. It will also help textileand electronics manufacturers to understand whichproduction technologies are suitable to meet certainproduct requirements.After an introduction to smart textiles and their marketrelevance, different material types for functionaltextiles are described along with their properties,application areas, and product examples. Specialattention is given to materials for the realization ofelectrical conductivity in textiles, as these are crucialfor the following overview on sensor and productiontechnologies. Next, textile-based sensors areintroduced. While numerous textile-based sensors,ranging from sensing fibers to coatings and three-dimensionalstructures, have been developed, theirspecific properties and usage are not clear. Bosowskiet al. have suggested a structure for a classified catalogueas knowledge basis to support the smart textileproduct development process. This chapter developsthe classification further and implements it in a catalogueto be used by practitioners from research andindustry when developing and designing textiles withsensing capabilities. The full catalogue is reported inthe appendix. The third part of the book starts by describingthe state of the art of research on productiontechnologies for the integration of conductive materialsinto textile substrates, which include weaving,knitting, embroidering, printing, without mentioningspecific products. Different variants of each technologyare presented. Additionally, associated technologiesto integrate electrical components in textile substratesare outlined. This part closes by reporting thecurrent state of research on automated productionsystems for electronics integration into textiles. In thelast part of the book, product and design conceptsfor smart textiles are evaluated along the example oftouchpads.

Energy Policy and Climate Change

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ISBN: 9783038421573 9783038421580 Year: Pages: 648 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-158-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-03 11:03:39
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Sustainability in Construction Engineering

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ISBN: 9783038971665 9783038971672 Year: Pages: 494 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-167-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-20 10:41:29
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The concept of sustainability has been expanding to all areas of economic activity, including construction. The Special Issue “Sustainability in Construction Engineering” provided a possibility for researchers to disseminate their new ideas and findings related to sustainable decisions in construction engineering as a complex discipline that involves designing, planning, construction and management of infrastructures. The topics raised interest of researchers all over the world and the current Special Issue received a great number of submissions from different institutions, countries and continents. In this Special Issue Reprint, 27 selected and peer-reviewed papers contribute to sustainable construction by offering technological, economic, social and environmental benefits through a variety of methodologies and tools, including fundamental decision-making models and methods as well as advanced multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods and techniques that proved to be very suitable for sustainability assessment. The papers are mainly concentrated in five areas: sustainable architecture; construction/reconstruction technology and sustainable construction materials; construction economics, including investments, supply, contracting and costs calculation; infrastructure planning and assessment; project risk perception, analysis and assessment with emphasis on sustainability. Due to its broad scope, the Special Issue Reprint expects to attract a large interest from the research community.

Mind-Body Medicine in Children and Adolescents

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ISBN: 9783038425281 9783038425298 Year: Pages: VI, 180 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-27 12:52:41
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The primary goals of this Special Issue are to encourage readers to become more familiar with the range of mind-body therapies and to explore their application in the pediatric clinical setting. The Issue provides background and literature updates on several of the most commonly used mind-body therapies including biofeedback, clinical hypnosis, guided imagery, meditation, and yoga. The emerging technology of immersive virtual reality is also explored. The Special Issue includes a deliberate mix of case studies and practical clinical guidance, with the dual goals of piquing curiosity and providing resources for clinicians interested in pursuing further training.

Scientific and Engineering Progress on Aluminum-Based Light-Weight Materials: Research Reports from the German Collaborative Research Center 692

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ISBN: 9783038971962 9783038971979 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-197-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-21 10:25:03
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Aluminum-based light-weight materials offer great potential for novel engineering applications, particularly when they are optimized to exhibit high strength and yet provide sufficient reliability. The last decade has thus seen substantial activity in the research fields of high-strength aluminum alloys and aluminum-based composite materials.For twelve years, backed by solid funding from the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG), scientists of the Collaborative Research Center, “High-strength aluminum-based light-weight materials for safety components” (SFB 692) at TU Chemnitz, Germany, have contributed to this research area. Our research efforts have been focused on three main areas: ultrafine-grained aluminum alloys produced by severe plastic deformation; aluminum matrix composites; and aluminum-based composite materials (including material combinations such as magnesium/aluminum or steel/aluminum and the corresponding joining and forming technologies). The framework of SFB 692 has served as a base for numerous scientific collaborations between scientists in the fields of materials science, design engineering, production engineering, mechanics, and even economics—in Chemnitz, and with many well-established international experts around the world.In this Special Issue, we present recent results on high-strength aluminum-based light-weight materials that also provide a broad overview of research activities in SFB 692 and elsewhere.

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