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Cell Lineage Choice During Haematopoiesis: A Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor Antonius Rolink

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ISBN: 9783038972747 9783038972754 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-275-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Oncology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-13 11:29:45
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.This special issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences contains a collection of articles by colleagues of Antonius (Ton) Gerardus Rolink (19/04/1953-06/08/2017) and honors Ton’s life and profound knowledge of and huge contribution to science. Ton participated in an FP7 Marie Curie Initial Training Network called DECIDE, and partners have submitted articles for this Special Issue. Scientists outside this network have also submitted articles. The articles examine various aspects of how the hematopoietic stem-cell gives rise to the different types of blood and immune cells. These include decision-making by the hematopoietic stem cell and the importance of controlling events within cells and the niches the cell resides in. New insights into these processes at the basic scientific level have given rise to an emerging new model for the development of blood cells. In turn, changes to our understanding of this process have led to new and exciting propositions regarding what goes wrong during the early stages of the development of leukemia.

iPS Cells for Modelling and Treatment of Human Diseases

ISBN: 9783038421221 9783038421214 Year: Pages: 422 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-09 15:30:07
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The field of reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) has moved very quickly, from bench to bedside in just eight years since its first discovery. The best example of this is the RIKEN clinical trial this year in Japan, which will use iPSC derived retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells to treat macular degeneration (MD). This is the first human disease to be tested for regeneration and repair by iPSC-derived cells and others will follow in the near future. Currently, there is an intense worldwide research effort to bring stem cell technology to the clinic for application to treat human diseases and pathologies. Human tissue diseases (including those of the lung, heart, brain, spinal cord, and muscles) drive organ bioengineering to the forefront of technology concerning cell replacement therapy. Given the critical mass of research and translational work being performed, iPSCs may very well be the cell type of choice for regenerative medicine in the future. Also, basic science questions, such as efficient differentiation protocols to the correct cell type for regenerating human tissues, the immune response of iPSC replacement therapy and genetic stability of iPSC-derived cells, are currently being investigated for future clinical applications.

The Biology and Treatment of Myeloid Leukaemias

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ISBN: 9783038427957 9783038427964 Year: Pages: VI, 190 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-17 13:45:41
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There has been an observed decrease in the global mortality from cancer, mostly atributable to improved, particularly early, detection and prevention. For many carcinomas and leukaemias in adults, once the disease has reached a certain stage there are no therapies that are able to erradicate the cancer cells and cure patients. There has been progress in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and remissions are achievable; however, the presence of chemoresistent blast cells leads to most patients relapsing, and relapse is difficult to treat and thus patients die due to their disease. Targeting these resistent cells and the leukaemia stem cells, which sustain the leukaemia, is crucial for an effective therapy for AML. Moreover, an increasing number of diverse mutations have been described in AML cells that disrupt the ability of these cells to undergo differentiation. The use of pro-differentiating agents to drive the blast cells to mature, and subsequently undergo apoptosis, provides another approach to therapy. Differentiation therapy, using all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an inducer of granulocyte differentiation, has been highly successful in the case of acute promyeloicytic leukaemia, a sub-type of AML, turning this disease into a curable malignancy.

Dual Specificity Phosphatases: From Molecular Mechanisms to Biological Function

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ISBN: 9783039216888 9783039216895 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-689-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) constitute a heterogeneous group of protein tyrosine phosphatases with the ability to dephosphorylate Ser/Thr and Tyr residues from proteins, as well as from other non-proteinaceous substrates including signaling lipids. DUSPs include, among others, MAP kinase (MAPK) phosphatases (MKPs) and small-size atypical DUSPs. MKPs are enzymes specialized in regulating the activity and subcellular location of MAPKs, whereas the function of small-size atypical DUSPs seems to be more diverse. DUSPs have emerged as key players in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, stress response, and apoptosis. DUSPs regulate essential physiological processes, including immunity, neurobiology and metabolic homeostasis, and have been implicated in tumorigenesis, pathological inflammation and metabolic disorders. Accordingly, alterations in the expression or function of MKPs and small-size atypical DUSPs have consequences essential to human disease, making these enzymes potential biological markers and therapeutic targets. This Special Issue covers recent advances in the molecular mechanisms and biological functions of MKPs and small-size atypical DUSPs, and their relevance in human disease.

Wine and Vine Components and Health

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ISBN: 9783039211388 9783039211395 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-139-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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While there is a tremendous literature on the topic of wine and health ranging back to the days of Hippocrates, it is considered that there is an unlimited variety of wine, allowing for the association of senses, nutrition, and hedonism. The history of vine and wine has lasted for at least 7000 years. Vitis represent adaptable plants, and thanks to the large variety of strains, wine is an alchemical mix with unique properties, a rich and original composition in terms of polyphenols, and well known antioxidants. This explains why wine and health are closely linked to nutrition.

Aging and Age-related Disorders: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapies

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ISBN: 9783039213559 9783039213566 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-356-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Aging of unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms is a convoluted biological phenomenon, which is manifested as an age-related functional decline caused by progressive dysregulation of certain cellular and organismal processes. Many chronic diseases are associated with human aging. These aging-associated diseases include cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases (including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s diseases), and many forms of cancer. Studies in yeast, roundworms, fruit flies, fishes, mice, primates, and humans have provided evidence that the major aspects and basic mechanisms of aging and aging-associated pathology are conserved across phyla. The focus of this International Journal of Molecular Sciences Special Issue is on molecular and cellular mechanisms, diagnostics, and therapies and diseases of aging. Fifteen original research and review articles in this Special Issue provide important insights into how various genetic, dietary, and pharmacological interventions can affect certain longevity-defining cellular and organismal processes to delay aging and postpone the onset of age-related pathologies in evolutionarily diverse organisms. These articles outline the most important unanswered questions and directions for future research in the vibrant and rapidly evolving fields of mechanisms of biological aging, aging-associated diseases, and aging-delaying therapies.

Marine Glycobiology, Glycomics and Lectins

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ISBN: 9783039218202 9783039218219 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-821-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:39:37
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Glycans (carbohydrate chains) of marine creatures are rich and diverse in polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids. The chains that are metabolized by glycan-related enzymes (glycosyltransferases and glycosidases) are recognized by glycan-binding proteins (lectins) which regulate cellular processes such as growth, differentiation, and death. Marine glycomics that involves the genome and transcriptome accelerates our understanding of the evolution of glycans, glycan-related enzymes, and lectins. From 2017 to 2019, the Special Issue “Marine Glycobiology, Glycomics and Lectins” of the journal Marine Drugs published scientific articles and reviews, on the background of “glycobiology”—that is, glycan-based biosciences. The aim was to promote the discovery of novel biomolecules that contribute to drug development and clinical studies. This has great potential for establishing connections between the fields of both human health and marine life sciences.This book contains 11 scientific papers representing current topics in comprehensive glycosciences related to therapeutic agents from marine natural products, as outlined.

microRNA Regulation in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783039217144 9783039217151 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-715-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that play a crucial role in posttranscriptional gene regulation. Over two thousand miRNAs have been identified in humans, and many of them are conserved in other species. miRNAs are implicated in fundamental cellular functions, including development and disease. In the last decade, there has been an overwhelming amount of data contributing to the understanding of miRNA biogenesis and their target genes. Moreover, a significant amount of work has been carried out in developing miRNA biomarkers and therapeutics for various disease conditions. RNA-based markers and therapeutics have been proven to have a clinical impact, and many of these miRNA-based therapies are at various stages of human clinical trials and clinical applications. Notably, miRNAs are also found in exosomes, and are considered to impart intercellular communication and function via several different modalities, including tunneling nanotubes. In spite of our understanding of miRNA biology and function, there are many challenges in effectively using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic agents in clinical applications. In this Special Issue, we are inviting reviews, perspectives, and original research articles to address some of these challenges. Topics will include, but are not limited to, miRNA biogenesis, clinical applications, extracellular function, biomarkers, miRNA immune regulation, signaling pathways, and preclinical models.

Regulatory microRNA

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ISBN: 9783038977681 9783038977698 Year: Pages: 348 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-769-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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This book includes updated information about microRNA regulation, for example, in the fields of circular RNAs, multiomics analysis, biomarkers and oncogenes. The variety of topics included in this book reaffirms the extent to which microRNA regulation affects biological processes. Although microRNAs are not translated to proteins, their importance for biological processes is not less than proteins. An understanding of their roles in various biological processes is critical to understanding gene function in these biological processes. Although non-coding RNAs other than microRNAs have recently come under investigation, microRNA still remains the front runner as the subject of genetic and biological studies. In reading the collection of papers, readers can grasp the most updated information regarding microRNA regulation, which will continue to be an important topic in genetics and biology.

Keywords

tensor decomposition --- miRNA transfection --- sequence-nonspecific off-target regulation --- extracellular vesicles --- cancer --- therapeutics --- miRNA --- virus --- host --- Cross-Kingdom --- target prediction --- microRNAs --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- cardiac diseases --- biomarker --- calf --- Ileum --- miRNA-mRNA integration --- miRNA sequencing --- growth --- development --- microRNA --- myelodysplastic syndromes --- acute myeloid leukemia --- azacitidine --- 14q32 --- MEG3 --- autophagy regulator --- transcriptional factor --- non-coding RNA --- regulatory network --- RWR algorithm --- circular RNA --- circFGFR2 --- FGFR2 --- miR-133a-5p --- miR-29b-1-5p --- skeletal muscle --- proliferation --- differentiation --- breast cancer --- CAFs --- estrogens --- GPER --- miR-338-3p --- c-Fos --- Cyclin D1 --- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) --- biomarker --- microRNA --- cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) --- muscle biopsy --- circulating miRNAs --- RNA interference --- small interfering RNA --- microRNA --- oncolytic virotherapy --- conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAd) --- biomarker --- gene --- microRNA --- parkinson’s disease --- miRNA --- bioinformatic analysis --- ischemic stroke --- miRNA-gene target interaction --- network --- biomarker --- diagnosis --- prognosis --- microRNAs --- epigenetic biomarker --- sepsis --- inflammation --- Teleostei --- embryogenesis --- tissue-enriched miRNAs --- post-transcriptional gene regulation --- miRNA expression and regulation --- passenger miRNA --- biomarker --- vascular injury --- smooth muscle cells --- porcine vein graft and stent models --- bone angiogenesis --- osteogenesis --- angiogenic-osteogenic coupling --- microRNAs --- bone regeneration --- bone formation --- bone tissue-engineering --- angiomiRs --- osteomiRs --- hypoxamiRs --- circular RNA --- circHIPK3 --- microRNA --- miR-30a-3p --- skeletal muscle --- proliferation --- differentiation

The Great Debate: General Ability and Specific Abilities in the Prediction of Important Outcomes

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ISBN: 9783039211678 9783039211685 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-168-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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There are many different theories of intelligence. Although these theories differ in their nuances, nearly all agree that there are multiple cognitive abilities and that they differ in the breadth of content they are typically associated with. There is much less agreement about the relative importance of cognitive abilities of differing generality for predicting important real-world outcomes, such as educational achievement, career success, job performance, and health. Some investigators believe that narrower abilities hold little predictive power once general abilities have been accounted for. Other investigators contend that specific abilities are often as—or even more—effective in forecasting many practical variables as general abilities. These disagreements often turn on differences of theory and methodology that are both subtle and complex. The five cutting-edge contributions in this volume, both empirical and theoretical, advance the conversation in this vigorous, and highly important, scientific debate.

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