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Geothermal Energy: Delivering on the Global Potential

ISBN: 9783038421337 9783038421344 Year: Pages: 430 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 14:48:30
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After decades of being largely the preserve of countries in volcanic regions, the use of geothermal energy—for both heat and power applications—is now expanding worldwide. This reflects its excellent low-carbon credentials and its ability to offer baseload and dispatchable output - rare amongst the mainstream renewables. Yet uptake of geothermal still lags behind that of solar and wind, principally because of (i) uncertainties over resource availability in poorly-explored reservoirs and (ii) the concentration of full-lifetime costs into early-stage capital expenditure (capex). Recent advances in reservoir characterization techniques are beginning to narrow the bounds of exploration uncertainty, both by improving estimates of reservoir geometry and properties, and by providing pre-drilling estimates of temperature at depth. Advances in drilling technologies and management have potential to significantly lower initial capex, while operating expenditure is being further reduced by more effective reservoir management — supported by robust mathematical models — and increasingly efficient energy conversion systems (flash, binary and combined-heat-and-power). Advances in characterization and modelling are also improving management of shallow low-enthalpy resources that can only be exploited using heat-pump technology. Taken together with increased public appreciation of the benefits of geothermal, the technology is finally ready to take its place as a mainstream renewable technology, This book draws together some of the latest developments in concepts and technology that are enabling the growing realisation of the global potential of geothermal energy in all its manifestations.After decades of being largely the preserve of countries in volcanic regions, the use of geothermal energy—for both heat and power applications—is now expanding worldwide. This reflects its excellent low-carbon credentials and its ability to offer baseload and dispatchable output - rare amongst the mainstream renewables. Yet uptake of geothermal still lags behind that of solar and wind, principally because of (i) uncertainties over resource availability in poorly-explored reservoirs and (ii) the concentration of full-lifetime costs into early-stage capital expenditure (capex). Recent advances in reservoir characterization techniques are beginning to narrow the bounds of exploration uncertainty, both by improving estimates of reservoir geometry and properties, and by providing pre-drilling estimates of temperature at depth. Advances in drilling technologies and management have potential to significantly lower initial capex, while operating expenditure is being further reduced by more effective reservoir management — supported by robust mathematical models — and increasingly efficient energy conversion systems (flash, binary and combined-heat-and-power). Advances in characterization and modelling are also improving management of shallow low-enthalpy resources that can only be exploited using heat-pump technology. Taken together with increased public appreciation of the benefits of geothermal, the technology is finally ready to take its place as a mainstream renewable technology.

Oxidative Stress and Space Biology: An Organ-Based Approach

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038429036 9783038429043 Year: Pages: VIII, 182 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-04 14:50:06
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Technological advances now allow the planning of deep space exploration missions with the aim to discover new habitats for humankind. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has spearheaded this effort and the research into the identification of risks to crew members associated with such lengthy missions. Exciting work from a multitude of investigators across the US, Europe and Japan have identified oxidative damage as a significant risk to major organs that could pose a threat to the health of the astronauts and the success of the mission. This Special Issue of IJMS is dedicated to providing a comprehensive overview of the identified risks and focus on how oxidative stress specifically could impact major organ systems when exposed to space-relevant conditions such as cosmic/galactic radiation, solar particle events, hypogravity, hyperoxia and hypoxia or a combination of stressors.

Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry of Precious Metals

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038973461 9783038973478 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-347-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology --- Ecology --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-20 10:57:53
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Precious metals continue to have economic and sociocultural importance, as their usage evolves and diversifies over time. Today, the industrial application of precious metals is increasing with the development of scientific and technological innovations. Especially, the biological cycling of these metals is receiving more and more attention, as the microbiota may be key to a range of issues regarding exploration, ore-processing and metallurgy, and the processing of electron waste. In this volume, we focus on enhancing the fundamental understanding of the biological processes that drive noble metal cycling and examine how this knowledge may be turned into biotechnolical applications.

Novel Methods and Applications for Mineral Exploration

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ISBN: 9783039289431 / 9783039289448 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-944-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This special volume offers a snapshot of the latest developments in mineral exploration, in particular, geophysical, geochemical, and computational methods. It reflects the cutting-edge applications of geophysics and geochemistry, as well as novel technologies, such as in artificial intelligence and hyperspectral exploration, methods that have profoundly changed how exploration is conducted. This special volume is a representation of these cutting-edge and pioneering methods to consider and conduct exploration, and should serve both as a valuable compendium of the most innovative exploration methodologies available and as a foreshadowing of the form of future exploration. As such, this volume is of significant importance and would be useful to any exploration geologist and company

Tourism Destination Management

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039214716 9783039214723 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-472-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This book collected studies focused on the management of tourist destinations. Destinations are complex and adaptive systems, where the different elements that make them up have to be oriented towards achieving a common objective that improves the competitiveness of the destination. Five main lines of research on tourist destinations can be established: 1) the management, planning, and marketing of destinations, with special attention to the tourism supply chain, communication, and integral management; 2) the sustainability of resources and capabilities; 3) the renewal of destinations in order to update their offer and main resources to maintain competitiveness; 4) online reputation and communication through social media in order to create and enhance a strong brand image and customer loyalty; and 5) the application of new technologies in order to develop smart destinations. The book is made up of five research studies that focus on analyzing the transition towards a more circular tourist activity in hotels, image as a competitive factor of destinations, the value of cultural creativity, the coherence of online reputation, and the relationship between hotel prices and online reputation in different tourist destinations.

Towards a Sustainable Management of Mine Wastes: Reprocessing, Reuse, Revalorization and Repository

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039281749 9783039281756 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-175-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The need for efficient and sustainable management methods of mine waste is continuously growing all around the world. These waste products often present serious management problems due to their more or less significant amounts and possible environmental threats. This Special Issue highlights the recent and new trends in sustainable mine waste management techniques. Currently, it is essential to sustainably manage mine waste, considering social, economic, environmental and technical aspects. In this Special Issue, insights related to the following issues are highlighted: the problems around mine waste, the fine characterization of mine waste, the latest available technical and environmental solutions to efficiently manage mine waste, including treatment and processing before disposal and high value element recovery, with the view of moving towards defining effective, low-cost and ecofriendly methods, the recycling of mine waste products as alternative resources in different sectors, and finally laboratory, pilot and/or industrial-scale studies related to these topics of research. Scientists and industry and governance stakeholders have to face these new challenges to find the best management practices for the future.

Keywords

copper tailings dump --- leaching --- pH --- mobility --- chemical species --- attenuation mechanisms --- aquatic systems --- Zgounder mine --- silver --- tailings --- low-grade silver ores --- flotation --- mineralogical characterization --- mine waste --- management --- sustainability --- bibliometric analysis --- systematic review --- valorisation --- mine waste --- soil washing --- heap leaching --- dump leaching --- mine drainage --- remediation --- acid mine drainage --- geographical information systems --- paste pH --- siderite --- multivariate analysis --- spatial mapping --- iron ore tailings --- iron recovery --- concrete composite admixtures --- reuse --- rheology --- microstructure --- flow behavior --- cemented paste backfill --- mixing --- recovering alkali --- Bayer red mud --- reaction kinetics --- magnesium oxide --- hydrotalcite-like compounds --- sustainable development --- tailings management --- industrial ecology --- sustainable resource management --- mining waste --- circular economy --- mine waste --- tailings --- gravity separation --- stamp mill --- historic tailings --- metals --- exploration --- economic potential --- LIBS --- core scanner --- acid mine drainage --- alkaline amendments --- cementitious amendments --- kinetic testing --- Joutel mine --- environmental mineralogy --- exploration --- contaminant --- geochemical behavior --- acid mine drainage --- mine tailings --- sulfides --- gold reprocessing --- desulfurization --- flotation --- kinetic test --- mining and mineral processing waste (MMPW) --- anthropogenic mineral resources (AMR) --- long-term storage --- supergene processes --- environmental damage --- loss and lost profits --- AMR processing --- n/a

Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

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ISBN: 9783039210305 9783039210312 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-031-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are being increasingly used in different applications in both military and civilian domains. These applications include surveillance, reconnaissance, remote sensing, target acquisition, border patrol, infrastructure monitoring, aerial imaging, industrial inspection, and emergency medical aid. Vehicles that can be considered autonomous must be able to make decisions and react to events without direct intervention by humans. Although some UAVs are able to perform increasingly complex autonomous manoeuvres, most UAVs are not fully autonomous; instead, they are mostly operated remotely by humans. To make UAVs fully autonomous, many technological and algorithmic developments are still required. For instance, UAVs will need to improve their sensing of obstacles and subsequent avoidance. This becomes particularly important as autonomous UAVs start to operate in civilian airspaces that are occupied by other aircraft. The aim of this volume is to bring together the work of leading researchers and practitioners in the field of unmanned aerial vehicles with a common interest in their autonomy. The contributions that are part of this volume present key challenges associated with the autonomous control of unmanned aerial vehicles, and propose solution methodologies to address such challenges, analyse the proposed methodologies, and evaluate their performance.

Structural Control of Mineral Deposits. Theory and Reality

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ISBN: 9783038977841 9783038977858 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-785-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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""Structural Control"" remains a crucial point that frequently lacks in any scientific and/or economic analysis of ore deposits, whatever their type and class. The case of lode deposits is exemplary, although also other deposits, like breccia pipe, stockwerk, massive sulphides, skarn, etc., can, surprisingly, be concerned. Several concepts like the gold-bearing shear zone have not proven valid during the last few decades in terms of our understanding of gold deposit and have been totally abandoned. Additionally, the relationships between magmatism, regional tectonic context, and mineralization remain uncertain and have been debated in several recent publications. This demonstrates that this issue is still relevant, and its solution may help in the distinction between intrusion-related and orogenic deposits. In this Special Issue, we particularly invite any case study of mineral deposits, in which it has been demonstrated that structural geology may have a significant role in the establishment of the deposit model of formation and/or on exploration and exploitation programs. Examples in which the structural model diverges from those described in the classical literature are particularly welcomed, including studies in which relationships with magmatism can be suspected and/or demonstrated. Indeed, all cases that illustrate concepts that differ from the classic ones and from theoretical models may represent significant contributions to this volume.

Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction for GIS

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ISBN: 9783039215683 9783039215690 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-569-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The book is dealing with recent progress in human–computer interaction (HCI) related to geographic information science (GIS). The Editorial starts with an overview about the evolution of the Internet and first HCI concepts and stimulates recent HCI developments using 3D and 4D apps, running on all mobile devices with OS Android, iOS, Linus, and Windows. Eight research articles present the state-of-the-art in HCI–GIS-related issues, starting with gender and age differences in using indoor maps via the estimation of building heights from space to an efficient visualization method for polygonal data with dynamic simplification. The review article deals with progress and challenges on entity alignment of geographic knowledge bases.

ASTER 20th Anniversary

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039286843 / 9783039286850 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-685-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The Advanced Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a research facility instrument on NASA’s Terra spacecraft. We celebrated the 20th anniversary of ASTER’s launch in December 1999. ASTER has been providing high spatial resolution multispectral data in the VNIR, SWIR, and TIR regions, and along-track stereo data. Starting April 2016, ASTER data have been distributed to the public at no cost. Another important and the most popular data set is the ASTER Global DEM, which covers almost the entire land surface at a 30 m grid size. ASTER data have been widely used in a variety of application areas such as land surface mapping and change detection, volcano and other natural hazard monitoring, mineral exploration, and urban heat island monitoring. This Special Issue consists of 12 papers (2 reviews, 9 articles, and 1 technical note) and covers topics including development of new techniques to process ASTER data, calibration activities to ensure long-term consistency of ASTER data, validation of the ASTER data products, and scientific achievements using ASTER data.

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