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Heat Transfer Processes in Oscillatory Flow Conditions

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ISBN: 9783038427094 9783038427100 Year: Pages: VI, 172 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Heat
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 16:01:54
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Heat exchange processes in steady flows have been studied extensively over the last two hundred years, and are now a part of undergraduate syllabi in most engineering courses. However, heat transfer processes in oscillatory flow conditions are still not very well understood. Their importance is well recognized in applications including Stirling machines, thermoacoustic engines, and refrigerators or pulsed-tube coolers in cryogenics. Additionally, the enhancement of heat transfer by using oscillatory, and, in some cases, pulsating flows is important in many areas of mechanical and chemical engineering for the intensification of heat transfer processes and possible miniaturization of heat exchangers of the future.This Special Issue was intended as a dissemination platform for researchers working in the field to have an opportunity to consolidate recent advances in this important research area. All types of research approaches were invited, including experimental, theoretical, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and their combinations, while the approaches could be either of a fundamental or applied nature. The guest editor and the editorial team of Applied Sciences hope that the readership will find the selection of ten articles presented here a useful contribution to the emerging field of heat transfer processes in oscillatory flow conditions.

Flow and Heat or Mass Transfer in the Chemical Process Industry

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ISBN: 9783038972389 9783038972396 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-239-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-28 12:14:25
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[Flow through process equipment in a chemical or manufacturing plant (e.g., heat exchangers, reactors, catalyst regeneration units, separation units, pumps, pipes, smoke stacks, etc.) is usually coupled with heat and/or mass transfer. Rigorous investigation of this coupling of momentum, heat, and mass transfer is not only important for the practice of designing process equipment, but is also important for improving our overall theoretical understanding of transfer phenomena. While generalizations and empiricisms, like the concept of the heat transfer coefficient or the widely used Reynolds analogy in turbulence, or the use of empirical transfer equations for flow in separation towers and reactors packed with porous media, have served practical needs in prior decades, such empiricisms can now be revised or altogether replaced by bringing modern experimental and computational tools to bear in understanding the interplay between flow and transfer. The patterns of flow play a critical role in enhancing the transfer of heat and mass. Typical examples are the coherent flow structures in turbulent boundary layers, which are responsible for turbulent transfer and mixing in a heat exchanger and for dispersion from a smoke stack, and the flow patterns that are a function of the configuration of a porous medium and are responsible for transfer in a fixed bed reactor or a fluid bed regenerator unit. The goal of this Special Issue is to be a forum for recent developments in theory, state-of-the-art experiments and computations on the interactions between flow and transfer in single and multi-phase flow, and from small scales to large scales, which can be important for the design of equipment in a chemical processing plant.]

Catalytic Methods in Flow Chemistry

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ISBN: 9783039287321 / 9783039287338 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-733-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The chemical industry is essential in the daily humn life of modern society; despite the misconception about the real need for chemical production, everyone enjoys the benefit of the chemical progress. However, the chemical industry generates a large variety of products, including (i) basic chemicals, e.g., polymers, petrochemicals, and basic inorganics; (ii) specialty chemicals for crop protection, paints, inks, colorants, textiles, paper, and engineering; and (iii) consumer chemicals, including detergents, soaps, etc. For these reasons, chemists in both acdemia and industry are challenged with developing green and sustainable chemical production towrad the full-recycling of feedstocks and waste. Aiming to improve the intensification of the process, chemists have established chemical reactions based on catalysis, as well as alternative technologies, such as continuous flow. The aim of this book is to cover promising recent research and novel trends in the field of novel catalytic reactions (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic, as well as their combinations) in continuous flow conditions. A collection of recent contribution for conversion of starting material originated from petroleum resources or biomass into highly-added value chemicals are reported.

Turbulence in River and Maritime Hydraulics

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ISBN: 9783038975946 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-595-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Understanding of the role of turbulence in controlling transport processes is of paramount importance for the preservation and protection of aquatic ecosystems, the minimization of the deleterious consequences of anthropogenic activity, and the successful sustainable development of river and maritime areas. In this context, the present Special Issue collects 15 papers which provide a representation of the present understanding of turbulent processes and their effects in river and maritime environments. The presented collection of papers is not exhaustive, but it highlights the key priority areas and knowledge gaps in this field of research. The published papers present the state-of-the-art knowledge of complex environmental flows which are useful for researchers and practitioners. The paper contents are an overview of some recent topics of research and an exposure of the current and future challenges associated with these topics.

Keywords

breaking waves --- turbulence invariants --- laboratory experiments --- flow-through system --- tidal inlets --- residence time --- coastal lagoon --- MIKE 3 FM (HD & --- TR) --- MIKE 21 FM (HD) --- dense jet --- current flow --- velocity --- trajectory --- turbulence --- dissipation --- rivers --- meanders --- turbulence --- secondary motion --- prediction --- bedrock canyon --- ADCP --- eddy viscosity --- bed shear stress --- spatial analysis --- smoothed particle hydrodynamics models --- physical modelling --- plunging breaking waves --- vorticity --- turbulent jet --- wave–current interaction --- spectral dissipation --- bottom friction --- numerical model --- hydrodynamic model --- spectral model --- wave attenuation --- energy dissipation --- drag coefficient --- flexible vegetation --- Spartina maritima --- vegetation patch --- wake region --- submerged ratio --- SVF --- channel confluences --- junction angle --- flow deflection zone --- flow retardation zone --- flow separation zone --- numerical modelling --- PANORMUS --- jets --- waves --- turbulence --- mixing --- diffusion --- advection --- river mouth --- flow mixing --- nonlinear shallow water equations --- macrovortices --- sub-grid turbulence --- seabed friction --- flow resistance --- roughness --- gravel-bed rivers --- casting technique --- CFD --- Kelvin–Helmholtz --- billow --- lobe --- cleft --- gravity current --- surface waves --- inclined negatively buoyant jets --- regular waves --- dilution --- sea discharges --- rivers --- maritime areas --- turbulent processes

Selected Problems in Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer

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ISBN: 9783039214273 9783039214280 Year: Pages: 460 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-428-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Fluid flow and heat transfer processes play an important role in many areas of science and engineering, from the planetary scale (e.g., influencing weather and climate) to the microscopic scales of enhancing heat transfer by the use of nanofluids; understood in the broadest possible sense, they also underpin the performance of many energy systems. This topical Special Issue of Energies is dedicated to the recent advances in this very broad field. This book will be of interest to readers not only in the fields of mechanical, aerospace, chemical, process and petroleum, energy, earth, civil ,and flow instrumentation engineering but, equally, biological and medical sciences, as well as physics and mathematics; that is, anywhere that “fluid flow and heat transfer” phenomena may play an important role or be a subject of worthy research pursuits.

Keywords

performance characteristics --- Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) elements --- heat transfer --- thermal performance --- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation --- air heater --- impingement heat transfer enhancement --- orthogonal jet --- turbulence --- flat plate --- Colebrook equation --- Colebrook-White --- flow friction --- iterative procedure --- logarithms --- Padé polynomials --- hydraulic resistances --- turbulent flow --- pipes --- computational burden --- thermodynamic --- numerical simulation --- thermal effect --- axial piston pumps --- microbubble pump --- bubble generation --- pump efficiency --- bubble size --- concentration --- particle counter --- flow-induced motion --- sharp sections --- T-section prism --- load resistances --- section aspect ratios --- energy conversion --- thermosyphon --- phase change --- two-phase flow --- visualization --- superheated steam --- triaxial stress --- thermogravimetry --- X-ray microtomography --- thermal cracking --- microbubbles --- fluidics --- flow oscillation --- oscillators --- energetics --- pressure loss --- pressure drop --- friction factor --- multiphase flow --- flow rate --- flow regime --- POD --- entropy generation --- boundary layer --- laminar separation bubble --- two-phase flow --- pump performance --- computational fluid dynamics --- centrifugal pump --- flow behavior --- magnetic field --- ferrofluid --- porous cavity --- heat transfer --- mass transfer --- numerical modeling --- numerical modeling --- surrogate model --- correlation --- fin-tube --- spiral fin-tube --- CFD --- ( A g ? F e 3 O 4 / H 2 O ) hybrid nanofluid --- nonlinear thermal radiation --- heat transfer --- chemical reaction --- mass transfer --- method of moment --- numerical results --- transient analysis --- pumps --- moment of inertia --- water hammer --- pipe flow --- wind turbine --- downwind --- tower shadow --- load --- tower --- BEM --- actuator disc --- CANDU-6 --- PHWR --- moderator --- turbulence --- OpenFOAM --- printed circuit heat exchanger --- supercritical LNG --- zigzag type --- heat transfer performance --- gas turbine engine --- particle deposition --- capture efficiency --- multiphase flow --- tip leakage flow --- detached-eddy simulation --- vortex breakdown --- transonic compressor --- POD --- tip leakage flow --- decomposition region --- decomposition dimensionalities --- vortex identification --- SPIV --- fire-spreading characteristics --- real vehicle experiments --- toxic gases --- temperature distributions --- unsteady heat release rate --- thermal energy recovery --- flue gas --- dew point temperature --- condensation --- Aspen® --- thermoacoustic electricity generator --- multi-stage --- traveling-wave heat engine --- push-pull --- inertance-compliance --- acoustic streaming --- n/a

Continuous Casting

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ISBN: 9783039213214 9783039213221 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-322-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Continuous casting is an industrial process whereby molten metal is solidified into a semi-finished billet, bloom, or slab for subsequent rolling in finishing mills; it is the most frequently used process to cast not only steel, but also aluminium and copper alloys. Since its widespread introduction for steel in the 1950s, it has evolved to achieve improved yield, quality, productivity and cost efficiency. It allows lower-cost production of metal sections with better quality, due to the inherently lower costs of continuous, standardized production of a product, as well as providing increased control over the process through automation. Nevertheless, challenges remain and new ones appear, as ways are sought to minimize casting defects and to cast alloys that could originally only be cast via other means. This Special Issue of the journal ""Metals"" consists of 14 research articles that cover many aspects of experimental work and theoretical modelling related to the ongoing development of continuous casting processes.

Keywords

slab continuous casting --- hybrid simulation model --- uneven secondary cooling --- numerical simulation --- molten steel flow --- solidification --- inclusion motion --- inclusion entrapment --- billet continuous casting --- swirling flow tundish --- multiphase flow --- heat transfer --- mold --- continuous casting --- numerical simulation --- round bloom --- continuous casting --- final electromagnetic stirring --- electromagnetic field --- polycrystalline model --- pores --- inclusions --- mechanism --- beam blank --- crystal --- propagation --- asymptotic analysis --- numerical simulation --- continuous casting --- air mist spray cooling --- continuous casting --- heat flux --- HTC --- secondary cooling --- thin-slab cast direct-rolling --- austenite grain coarsening --- grain growth control --- liquid core reduction --- secondary cooling --- two-phase pinning --- annular argon blowing --- upper nozzle --- flow behavior --- argon gas distribution --- tundish --- continuous casting --- bulge deformation --- thermomechanical coupling --- segmented roller --- finite element analysis --- steel tundish --- baffle --- flow field --- velocity --- PIV --- multi-source information fusion --- data stream --- continuous casting --- roll gap value --- prediction --- global optimization --- support vector regression --- variational mode decomposition --- empirical mode decomposition --- support vector regression --- mold level --- continuous casting --- magnetohydrodynamics --- fluid flow --- bubbles --- inclusions --- entrapment --- entrainment --- heat transfer --- solidification --- slab mold --- continuous casting --- n/a

Advances in Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport: Pushing the Hidden Boundary

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ISBN: 9783039210749 9783039210756 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-075-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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In recent decades, the study of groundwater flow and solute transport has advanced into new territories that are beyond conventional theories, such as Darcy’s law and Fick’s law. The studied media have changed from permeable porous and fractured ones to much less permeable ones, such as clay and shale. The studied pore sizes have also changed from millimetres to micro-meters or even nano-meters. The objective of this Special Issue is to report recent advances in groundwater flow and solute transport that push the knowledge boundary into new territories which include, but are not limited to, flow and transport in sloping aquifer/hillslopes, coupled unsaturated and saturated flow, coupled aquifer-vertical/horizontal/slant well flow, interaction of aquifer with connected and disconnected rivers, non-Darcian flow, anomalous transport beyond the Fickian scheme, and flow and transport in extremely small pore spaces such as shale and tight sandstones. Contributions focusing on innovative experimental, numerical, and analytical methods for understanding unconventional problems, such as the above-listed ones, are encouraged, and contributions addressing flow and transport at interfaces of different media and crossing multiple temporal and spatial scales are of great value

Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes

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ISBN: 9783038420385 9783038420392 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-039-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 07:00:06
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Microreactors are small devices with sub-millimeter internals which have superb mass and heat transfer. Initially, they were used for reactions with very high demands on the latter, e.g. very exothermic reactions, gas-liquid reactions with interfacial transport issues, reactions with very fast kinetics which demands even faster mixing, and more. In this way, the processing window was opened widely and, also due to the minute volumes only present in the reaction zone, safe processing under otherwise hazardous conditions was enabled. This includes processing of reactions which are prone to thermal runaway and in the explosive regime. Scale-up of promising reactions and products which was hindered with conventional technology is now possible using the new equipment. This has widened the process development possibilities in chemical industry.In the last years, micro process technology was not only used for the very problematic synthetic issues which formerly had a dead-end position in industry’s process development. Rather, the scope of chemical reactions to be processed in microreactors was considerably widened by exploring new process conditions with regard to temperature, pressure, concentration, solvents, and more. This is commonly referred to as flow chemistry. This allowed to reduce the processing time-scale for many reactions to the minute range or even below which fits well to the residence times of microreactors. In addition, the process integration of several reactions in one flow to a multi-step synthesis has opened a new door in molecular diversity as well as system and process complexity. The same holds for the combination of reactions and separations in micro-flow. To achieve throughputs relevant for industrial production, smart scale-out to milli-flow units has established and supplemented the num­bering-up concept (parallelization of microchannels/-reactors operated under equal conditions).New innovations and enabling technologies need anyhow evaluation and benchmarking with conventional technology on the full-system level. Yet, microreactor technology has in the last years deepened so much into process intensification on a holistic scale that the focus increasingly is given towards the process dimension—to process design and automation, real-case applications, cost analysis, life-cycle assessment, and more. The impact on cost competitiveness and sustainability becomes well assessed.Facing this very recent scientific achievement, the special issue “Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes” of the journal Processes aims to cover recent advances in the development of microreactor and smart-scaled flow processes towards the process level — in the sense as given above.

Water-Worked Bedload: Hydrodynamic and Mass Transport

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ISBN: 9783039213016 9783039213023 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-302-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The state-of-the-art in water-worked bed hydraulics can only be examined through a careful exploration of the experimental (both laboratory and field) results via theoretical development. This book is primarily focused on the research aspects that involve a comprehensive knowledge of sediment dynamics in turbulent flows, as the most up-to-date research findings in the field are presented. It begins with two reviews on bedload transport and water-work bed experimental studies. The sediment dynamics is then analyzed from a classical perspective by applying the mean bed shear approach and additionally incorporating a statistical description for the role of turbulence. The work finally examines the local scour problems at hydraulic structures and results from field studies. It is intended as a course guide for field professionals, keeping up with modern technological developments. Therefore, as a simple prerequisite, readers should have a basic knowledge of hydraulics to an undergraduate level.

Micro- and Nanofluidics for Bionanoparticle Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039215942 9783039215959 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-595-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Bionanoparticles such as microorganisms and exosomes are recoganized as important targets for clinical applications, food safety, and environmental monitoring. Other nanoscale biological particles, includeing liposomes, micelles, and functionalized polymeric particles are widely used in nanomedicines. The recent deveopment of microfluidic and nanofluidic technologies has enabled the separation and anslysis of these species in a lab-on-a-chip platform, while there are still many challenges to address before these analytical tools can be adopted in practice. For example, the complex matrices within which these species reside in create a high background for their detection. Their small dimension and often low concentration demand creative strategies to amplify the sensing signal and enhance the detection speed. This Special Issue aims to recruit recent discoveries and developments of micro- and nanofluidic strategies for the processing and analysis of biological nanoparticles. The collection of papers will hopefully bring out more innovative ideas and fundamental insights to overcome the hurdles faced in the separation and detection of bionanoparticles.

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