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Pediatric Palliative Care

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ISBN: 9783038973508 9783038973515 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-351-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Pediatrics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-08 09:55:16
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At least 20 million children worldwide would benefit from Pediatric Palliative Care (PPC) annually, and eight million children would need specialized PPC services. In the USA alone, more than 42,000 children, 0–19 years, die annually; fifty-five percent of them are infants younger than one year old. Interdisciplinary PPC is about matching treatment to patient goals and is considered specialized medical care for children with a serious illness. It is focused on relieving pain, distressing symptoms, and stress from a serious illness and is appropriate at any age and at any stage, together with curative treatment. The primary PPC goal is to improve the quality of life both for the child and for his/her family.Sadly, advances in the control of symptoms in children dying of life-limiting diseases have often not kept pace with treatment directed at curing the underlying disease. Data reveal that the majority of distressing symptoms in children with an advanced serious illness (such as pain, dyspnea and nausea/vomiting) are not treated, and, when treated, therapy is commonly ineffective. Emerging evidence shows that palliative care involvement results in improved quality of life, as well as prolongation of life.High-quality pediatric palliative care for children with serious illnesses is now an expected standard of medical care. However, there still remain significant barriers to achieving optimal care, related to lack of formal education, reimbursement issues, the emotional impact of caring for a dying child, and most importantly, the lack of interdisciplinary PPC teams with sufficient staffing.Fortunately, considerable advances have been made in recent years providing PPC around the globe both in resource-poor and resource-rich countries through care provided at children’s hospitals, outpatient palliative care clinics, palliative home care, and free-standing children’s hospice houses. This book, authored by leading authorities in the field, is dedicated to describing existing gaps, as well as the achievements made in clinical care, education, training, and research.

Life Cycle Assessment on Green Building Implementation

ISBN: 9783038422563 9783038422570 Year: Pages: XIV, 214 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-09-02 17:52:30
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Greenhouse-gas emissions have become one of the most impacting environmental issues in today’s society. A rapidly increasing trend in global CO2emissions particularly since the early nineties (23.64% since 1990) has led to the generation of about 50,000 million tons of CO2–equivalent (eqv) worldwide in 2010. According to mainstream climate experts, the increasing concentration of greenhouse-gases is having a warming effect on the world climate. To slow down global warming, there is a global focus on reducing greenhouse-gas emissions. Life cycle assessment in green building implementation is the focus of this Special Issue.

Family Communication at the End of Life

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ISBN: 9783038425199 9783038425182 Year: Pages: X, 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-519-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Gender Studies --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2017-09-25 09:19:08
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Scholars contributing to this special issue on “Family Communication at the End of Life” have provided evidence that communication is vital for terminally ill individuals, family members, and healthcare/palliative care specialists. Overall, the fifteen articles in this special issue focus on five questions: First, what are the trends regarding different approaches for beginning the conversation about death and dying earlier rather than later? Second, who is making the end of life decisions and how are they made? Third, how does age and disease impact the way that families communicate at the end of life? Fourth, how does good communication (i.e., satisfying for all participants, effective for addressing needs, fulfilling goals) impact the myriad of complex issues at the end of life? Fifth, what is the significance of exploring and valuing the perspective of the family members’ experiences and recollections of their communication at the end of life with their terminally ill family member as well as with the healthcare providers? Overall, the scholars emphasize that focusing on family communication at the end of life is crucial for improving medical, psychological, and relational outcomes for those dealing with the death and dying process.

Metabolically Healthy Obesity

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ISBN: 9783038426868 9783038426875 Year: Pages: 206
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 14:06:23
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Accumulating evidence suggests that not all obese subjects are at increased cardiometabolic risk and that the “metabolically healthy obese” phenotype may exist in the absence of metabolic abnormalities. Limited data regards the determinants of metabolically healthy obesity exist, particularly in relation to genetics, dietary and lifestyle behaviours. In light of the current obesity epidemic, it is clear that current “one size fits all” approaches to tackle obesity are largely unsuccessful. Whether dietary, lifestyle and/or therapeutic interventions, based on stratification of obese individuals according to their metabolic health phenotype, are more effective remains to be seen, with limited and conflicting data available. This book includes original research articles and reviews of the scientific literature that contribute to our understanding of the role of clinical, biological, genetic, and environmental factors in metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity.

Vitamin C: Current Concepts in Human Physiology

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ISBN: 9783038972945 9783038972952 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-295-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-05 12:11:11
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[Vitamin C is synthesized by almost all animals. However, for humans, it is a vitamin that needs constant replenishment in the diet. While its role as an anti-oxidant and for preventing scurvy have been known for a long time, novel functions and unrecognized associations continue to be identified for this enigmatic molecule. In the past decade, new details have emerged regarding differences in its uptake by oral and intravenous modes. While vitamin C deficiency remains largely unknown and poorly addressed in many segments of the population, novel pharmacological roles for high-dose, intravenous vitamin C in many disease states have now been postulated and investigated. This has shifted its role in health and disease from the long-perceived notion as merely a vitamin and an anti-oxidant to a pleiotropic molecule with a broad anti-inflammatory, epigenetic, and anti-cancer profile.This Special Issue comprises original research papers and reviews on vitamin C metabolism and function that relate to the following topics: understanding its role in the modulation of inflammation and immunity, therapeutic applications and safety of pharmacological ascorbate in disease, and the emerging role of vitamin C as a pleiotropic modulator of critical care illness and cancer.]

Consideration of Abiotic Natural Resources in Life Cycle Assessments

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ISBN: 9783038975458 9783038975465 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-546-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-28 11:06:31
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The book contains a collection of articles dealing with how the extraction of mineral resources can be considered in environmental analyses such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The consumption of resources, e.g., metals, is increasing strongly worldwide. This is associated with more energy use; environmental pollution; and social, economic, and political consequences. An increase is also expected for the coming decades. At the same time, modern products and technologies, even in the field of renewable energies, require a large number of critical raw materials. A crucial question here is the exhaustibility of natural resources. What is the relevance of resource depletion today? Must a geological shortage of metals be expected in the foreseeable future? How could such a thing be considered in the LCA of products and weighed against other environmental aspects? The articles in question have been written over the past three years by leading experts in both geology and environmental sciences and show the breadth of the controversial discussion.

Environmental Impact Assessment of Buildings

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ISBN: 9783039282432 9783039282449 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-244-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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This Special Issue covers a wide range of areas—including building orientation, service life, use of photocatalytically active structures and PV facades, implications of transportation system, building types (i.e., high rise, multilevel, commercial, residential), life cycle assessment, and structural engineering—that need to be considered in the environmental impact assessment of buildings, and the chapters include case studies across the globe. Consideration of these strategies would help reduce energy and material consumption, environmental emissions, and waste generation associated with all phases of a building’s life cycle. Chapter 1 demonstrates that green star concrete exhibits the same structural properties as conventional concrete in Australia. Chapter 2 showed that the use of TiO2 as a photocatalyst on the surface of construction materials with a suitable stable binding agent, such as aggregates, would enable building walls to absorb NOx from air. This study found that TiO2 has the potential to reduce ambient concentrations of NOx from areas where this pollutant becomes concentrated under solar irradiation. Chapter 3 presents the life cycle assessment of architecturally integrated glass–glass photovoltaics in building facades to find the appropriate material composition for a multicolored PV façade offering improved environmental performance. Chapter 4 shows that urban office buildings lacking appropriate orientation experienced indoor overheating. Chapter 5 details four modeling approaches that were implemented to estimate buildings’ response towards load shedding. Chapter 6 covers the life cycle GHG emissions of high-rise residential housing block to discover opportunities for environmental improvement. Chapter 7 discusses an LCA framework that took into account variation in the service life of buildings associated with the use of different types of materials. Chapter 8 presents a useful data mining algorithm to conduct life cycle asset management in residential developments built on transport systems.

Human Factors in Green Building

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ISBN: 9783038975663 9783038975670 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-567-0
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Construction --- Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 09:42:11
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World Green Building Council suggests that health, well-being and productivity should be the next chapter for green building. There is an obvious shift of green building movement from technology-centric towards human-centric, which culminates in recent WELL Building Standard, focusing exclusively on human health and wellness. This special issue aims to push forward the research, discourse and practice of green building towards more human-oriented design solutions. Particularly, this special issue collects papers on: Post-occupancy evaluation of green buildingsIndoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)Thermal Comfort and Adaptive BehaviorsQuality of Life and HousingHealthcare Design

Environmentally Sustainable Livestock Production

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ISBN: 9783038975526 9783038975533 Year: Pages: 290 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-553-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-25 10:30:03
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This book looks at key research covering a wide range of aspects of environmental sustainability and the mitigation of environmental impacts of livestock production, including emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), nitrogen and phosphorus excretion, ammonia emissions, land use and land management, and use of energy and other resources. All the globally most important livestock species (beef and dairy cattle, pigs, broiler chicken and laying hens) are covered in the book. The mitigation methods assessed in the papers include general system changes, changes in feeding, improvement of animal health, and new technologies of manure management. The scope of the papers included in this book ranges from farm level mitigation methods to national level system changes. This book also addresses methodological development in assessing the environmental sustainability of the livestock production chains, including holistic methods, such as environmental and social life cycle assessment (LCA) and other modeling approaches.

The Origin and Early Evolution of Life: Prebiotic Chemistry of Biomolecules

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ISBN: 9783039216062 9783039216079 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-607-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Studying the origin of life is one of man’s greatest achievements over the last sixty years. The fields of interest encompassed by this quest are multiple and interdisciplinary: chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry, mathematics, geology but also statistics, atmospheric science, meteorology, oceanography, and astrophysics. Recent scientific discoveries, such as water on Mars and the existence of super-Earths with atmospheres similar to primordial Earth, have pushed researchers to simulate prebiotic conditions in explaining the abiotic formation of molecules essential to life. This collection of articles offers an overview of recent discoveries in the field of prebiotic chemistry of biomolecules, their formation and selection, and the evolution of complex chemical systems.

Keywords

origin of life --- systems chemistry --- Chemomimesis --- Molecular Darwinism --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- thiol-rich peptides --- cysteine --- aminonitriles --- imidazoles --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- nucleotide and nucleoside synthesis --- protein design --- novel metalloproteins --- binary patterned amino acid sequences --- prebiotic chemistry --- population growth --- replication --- growth order --- Darwinian evolution --- selection --- origin of life --- abiogenesis --- carbon fixation --- hydrothermal vents --- electrochemistry --- reduction --- digit multiplicity --- information --- transmission --- encoding --- translation --- diversity --- function --- origin of life --- layered double hydroxide (LDH) clay --- pentose diphosphate --- pentopyranose nucleic acid --- arabinopyranose nucleic acid --- RNA --- base pairing --- purine precursor --- inosine --- AICAR --- peptide/RNA world --- prebiotic information system --- translation and the genetic code --- bridge peptide and aaRS --- ribozyme and tRNA --- tRNA and mRNA --- coevolution of translation machine and the genetic code --- MVC architecture pattern and biological information --- numerical codons --- AnyLogic software for computer simulation of translation machine --- phosphoryl transfer --- metabolism --- energy currency --- mixed anhydride --- origin of life --- hypercycle --- Monte Carlo --- prebiotic chemistry --- carbamic acid --- carbon dioxide-ammonia ices --- infrared spectra --- anharmonicity --- origin of life --- metabolism --- phosphates --- network expansion simulation --- thermodynamic bottleneck --- molecular clocks --- ab initio molecular dynamics --- catalysis --- prebiotic soup --- origins of life --- aldol reaction --- mechanochemistry --- minerals --- monosaccharides --- prebiotic chemistry --- prebiotic polymerization --- nucleotide oligomerization --- abasic oligomers --- nucleotide stability --- stability as a selection pressure --- dry-wet cycles --- genetic code origin --- tRNA accretion model --- tRNA-synthetase --- metabolism --- thioester --- nucleotidyltransferases --- early peptides --- ribosome --- n/a

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