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Antimicrobial Peptides

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ISBN: 9783038420729 9783038420736 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-073-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 10:29:38
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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are gene-encoded, ancient (and important) mediators of innate host defense that exert direct or indirect antimicrobial action as well as possessing other important biologic activities (e.g., neutralization of endotoxin and anti-biofilm action) that help to protect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants from invading pathogens. While the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant pathogens (and the desperate need to develop new anti-infectives) has been a recent force driving the field, interest in AMPs has an earlier origin in studies of how phagocytes kill bacteria by oxygen-independent processes. AMPs responsible for such killing of microbes by rabbit and human neutrophils were later purified by Ganz, Selsted and Lehrer, which they termed defensins; at the time of this writing, literally thousands of defensin-based publications can be found in the scientific literature! The initial reports on defensins and the earlier report by Boman’s group on the purification and action of an insect AMP represented a historical and defining point for the AMP field as they, in hindsight, demanded the recognition of AMP research as a unique discipline that has important linkages to other important fields of medicine, especially those of microbiology, infectious diseases and immunology. On a personal note, I remember conferences on phagocytes and host defense in the early 1980s where the topic of AMPs was relegated to one short session in a five day period! Now, we have hundreds of international “AMPologists” with expertise in chemistry, biochemistry, molecular and structural biology, cell biology, microbiology, pharmacology, or medicine who have built their research careers around AMPs and can now attend international conferences dedicated to advances in AMP research.

Liquid Crystal Optical Device

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ISBN: 9783039280568 / 9783039280575 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-057-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The Special Issue “Liquid Crystal Optical Devices” discusses recent developments in the rapidly advancing subject of liquid crystals (LCs).

Phytoalexins: Current Progress and Future Prospects

ISBN: 9783038420583 9783038420590 Year: Pages: 516 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-12 11:33:35
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Phytoalexins are antimicrobial substances of low molecular weight produced by plants in response to infection or stress, which form part of their active defense mechanisms. It is now clear that phytoalexins exhibit toxicity across much of the biological spectrum, prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Starting in the 1950s, research on phytoalexins has begun with biochemistry and bio-organic chemistry, resulting in the determination of their structure, their biological activity as well as mechanisms of their synthesis and their catabolism by microorganisms. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of numerous phytoalexins has also permitted the use of molecular biology tools for the exploration of the genes encoding enzymes of their synthesis pathways and their regulators. This has led to potential applications for increasing plant resistance to diseases. Phytoalexins display an enormous diversity belonging to various chemical families such as isoflavones, isoflavanones, pterocarpans, isoflavans, flavanones, coumestans, furanoacetylenes, phenylpropanoids, steroid glycoalkaloids, norsesquiterpenoids/sesquiterpenoids, coumarins, diterpenes, ent-kaurane-related diterpenoids, acidic sesquiterpenoids, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, naphthaldehydes, indoles and stilbenes.Research papers dealing with all aspects of phytoalexins, including structure elucidation; chemical synthesis; methods for phytoalexin analysis in plant extracts or biological fluids; biosynthesis studies including modulation of phytoalexin synthesis; engineering of phytoalexin biochemical pathways in plants and microbes; biological activities; structure/activity relationships; phytoalexin metabolism in planta and by micro-organisms; roles and ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters or Multi-Drugs Efflux (MDE) transporters are welcome for inclusion in this Special Issue of Molecules. Review articles, particularly those dealing with the themes mentioned above are also particularly welcome for inclusion.

Visible Light Communication and Positioning

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ISBN: 9783039214358 / 9783039214365 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-436-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In recent years, wireless communications have significantly evolved due to the advanced technology of smartphones;, portable devices; and the rapid growth of Internet of Things, e-Health, and intelligent transportation systems . Moreover, there is anare increasing need fors of emerging intelligent services like positioning and sensing in athe future intelligence society. Recent years have witnessed the growing research interests and activities in the communication and intelligencet services in the optical wireless spectrum, as a complementary technology to more

Advanced DSP Techniques for High-Capacity and Energy-Efficient Optical Fiber Communications

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ISBN: 9783039217922 / 9783039217939 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-793-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The rapid proliferation of the Internet has been driving communication networks closer and closer to their limits, while available bandwidth is disappearing due to an ever-increasing network load. Over the past decade, optical fiber communication technology has increased per fiber data rate from 10 Tb/s to exceeding 10 Pb/s. The major explosion came after the maturity of coherent detection and advanced digital signal processing (DSP). DSP has played a critical role in accommodating channel impairments mitigation, enabling advanced modulation formats for spectral efficiency transmission and realizing flexible bandwidth. This book aims to explore novel, advanced DSP techniques to enable multi-Tb/s/channel optical transmission to address pressing bandwidth and power-efficiency demands. It provides state-of-the-art advances and future perspectives of DSP as well.

Control of Multiphase Machines and Drives

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ISBN: 9783039281367 / 9783039281374 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-137-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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With the growing interest in electrical machines in recent times, the multiphase machine field has developed into a fascinating research area. Their intrinsic features (power splitting, better fault tolerance, or lower torque ripple) make them an appealing competitor to conventional three-phase machines. Multiphase electric drives have been recently used in applications where fault tolerance and continuous operation of the drive are required. However, the difficulties in extending the three-phase conventional current regulation and control structure to multiphase systems still limit their broad applicability in industry solutions. The main objective of this book is to illustrate new advances, developments, and applications in the field of multiphase machines and drives, while exposing these advances, developments, and applications to the scientific community and industry.

Liquid Crystal on Silicon Devices: Modeling and Advanced Spatial Light Modulation Applications

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ISBN: 9783039218288 / 9783039218295 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-829-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) has become one of the most widespread technologies for spatial light modulation in optics and photonics applications. These reflective microdisplays are composed of a high-performance silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) backplane, which controls the light-modulating properties of the liquid crystal layer. State-of-the-art LCoS microdisplays may exhibit a very small pixel pitch (below 4 ?m), a very large number of pixels (resolutions larger than 4K), and high fill factors (larger than 90%). They modulate illumination sources covering the UV, visible, and far IR. LCoS are used not only as displays but also as polarization, amplitude, and phase-only spatial light modulators, where they achieve full phase modulation. Due to their excellent modulating properties and high degree of flexibility, they are found in all sorts of spatial light modulation applications, such as in LCOS-based display systems for augmented and virtual reality, true holographic displays, digital holography, diffractive optical elements, superresolution optical systems, beam-steering devices, holographic optical traps, and quantum optical computing. In order to fulfil the requirements in this extensive range of applications, specific models and characterization techniques are proposed. These devices may exhibit a number of degradation effects such as interpixel cross-talk and fringing field, and time flicker, which may also depend on the analog or digital backplane of the corresponding LCoS device. The use of appropriate characterization and compensation techniques is then necessary.

Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038976202 / 9783038976219 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-621-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Technology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-19 09:06:48
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Food-derived bioactive peptides or dietary peptides are increasingly becoming recognized as major food compounds for human health promotion, which prevent the occurrence of chronic diseases through their impacts on the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems. Further bioactive peptide discoveries are essential for maintaining human health and commercial development in the area of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This Special Issue covers a wide range of research topics specifically on food-derived bioactive proteins and peptides including the in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of biological activities, bio-accessibility, intestinal absorption, bioavailability, the effect on chronic diseases, and the modulation of human nutrition.

Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

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ISBN: 9783039210305 / 9783039210312 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-031-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are being increasingly used in different applications in both military and civilian domains. These applications include surveillance, reconnaissance, remote sensing, target acquisition, border patrol, infrastructure monitoring, aerial imaging, industrial inspection, and emergency medical aid. Vehicles that can be considered autonomous must be able to make decisions and react to events without direct intervention by humans. Although some UAVs are able to perform increasingly complex autonomous manoeuvres, most UAVs are not fully autonomous; instead, they are mostly operated remotely by humans. To make UAVs fully autonomous, many technological and algorithmic developments are still required. For instance, UAVs will need to improve their sensing of obstacles and subsequent avoidance. This becomes particularly important as autonomous UAVs start to operate in civilian airspaces that are occupied by other aircraft. The aim of this volume is to bring together the work of leading researchers and practitioners in the field of unmanned aerial vehicles with a common interest in their autonomy. The contributions that are part of this volume present key challenges associated with the autonomous control of unmanned aerial vehicles, and propose solution methodologies to address such challenges, analyse the proposed methodologies, and evaluate their performance.

Applications of Power Electronics

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ISBN: 9783038979746 / 9783038979753 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 476 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-975-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Power electronics technology is still an emerging technology, and it has found its way into many applications, from renewable energy generation (i.e., wind power and solar power) to electrical vehicles (EVs), biomedical devices, and small appliances, such as laptop chargers. In the near future, electrical energy will be provided and handled by power electronics and consumed through power electronics; this not only will intensify the role of power electronics technology in power conversion processes, but also implies that power systems are undergoing a paradigm shift, from centralized distribution to distributed generation. Today, more than 1000 GW of renewable energy generation sources (photovoltaic (PV) and wind) have been installed, all of which are handled by power electronics technology. The main aim of this book is to highlight and address recent breakthroughs in the range of emerging applications in power electronics and in harmonic and electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues at device and system levels as discussed in ?robust and reliable power electronics technologies, including fault prognosis and diagnosis technique stability of grid-connected converters and ?smart control of power electronics in devices, microgrids, and at system levels.

Keywords

energy storage --- lithium-ion battery --- battery management system BMS --- battery modeling --- state of charge SoC --- grid-connected inverter --- power electronics --- multi-objective optimization --- switching frequency --- total demand distortion --- switching losses --- EMI filter --- power converter --- power density --- optimal design --- electrical drives --- axial flux machines --- magnetic equivalent circuit --- torque ripple --- back EMF --- permanent-magnet machines --- five-phase permanent magnet synchronous machine --- five-leg voltage source inverter --- multiphase space vector modulation --- sliding mode control --- extended Kalman filter --- voltage source inverters (VSI) --- voltage control --- current control --- digital control --- predictive controllers --- advanced controllers --- stability --- response time --- lithium-ion batteries --- electric vehicles --- battery management system --- electric power --- dynamic PV model --- grid-connected VSI --- HF-link MPPT converter --- nanocrystalline core --- SiC PV Supply --- DC–DC converters --- multi-level control --- renewable energy resources control --- electrical engineering communications --- microgrid control --- distributed control --- power system operation and control --- variable speed pumped storage system --- droop control --- vector control --- phasor model technique --- nine switch converter --- synchronous generator --- digital signal controller --- static compensator, distribution generation --- hybrid converter --- multi-level converter (MLC) --- series active filter --- power factor correction (PFC) --- field-programmable gate array --- particle swarm optimization --- selective harmonic elimination method --- voltage source converter --- plug-in hybrid electric vehicles --- power management system --- renewable energy sources --- fuzzy --- smart micro-grid --- five-phase machine --- fault-tolerant control --- induction motor --- one phase open circuit fault (1-Ph) --- adjacent two-phase open circuit fault (A2-Ph) --- volt-per-hertz control (scalar control) --- current-fed inverter --- LCL-S topology --- semi-active bridge --- soft switching --- voltage boost --- wireless power transfer --- DC–DC conversion --- zero-voltage switching (ZVS) --- transient control --- DC–DC conversion --- bidirectional converter --- power factor correction --- line frequency instability --- one cycle control --- non-linear phenomena --- bifurcation --- boost converter --- converter --- ice melting --- modular multilevel converter (MMC) --- optimization design --- transmission line --- static var generator (SVG) --- hardware-in-the-loop --- floating-point --- fixed-point --- real-time emulation --- field programmable gate array --- slim DC-link drive --- VPI active damping control --- total harmonic distortion --- cogging torque --- real-time simulation --- power converters --- nonlinear control --- embedded systems --- high level programing --- SHIL --- DHIL --- 4T analog MOS control --- high frequency switching power supply --- water purification --- modulation index --- electromagnetic interference --- chaotic PWM --- DC-DC buck converter --- CMOS chaotic circuit --- triangular ramp generator --- spread-spectrum technique --- system in package --- electric vehicle --- wireless power transfer --- inductive coupling --- coupling factor --- phase-shift control --- series-series compensation --- PSpice --- fixed-frequency double integral sliding-mode (FFDISM) --- class-D amplifier --- Q-factor --- GaN cascode --- direct torque control (DTC) --- composite active vectors modulation (CVM) --- permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) --- effect factors --- double layer capacitor (DLC) models --- energy storage modelling --- simulation models --- current control loops --- dual three-phase (DTP) permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) --- space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) --- vector control --- voltage source inverter --- active rectifiers --- single-switch --- analog phase control --- digital phase control --- wireless power transfer --- three-level boost converter (TLBC) --- DC-link cascade H-bridge (DCLCHB) inverter --- conducting angle determination (CAD) techniques --- total harmonic distortion (THD) --- three-phase bridgeless rectifier --- fault diagnosis --- fault tolerant control --- hardware in loop --- compensation topology --- electromagnetic field (EMF) --- electromagnetic field interference (EMI) --- misalignment --- resonator structure --- wireless power transfer (WPT) --- WPT standards --- EMI filter --- electromagnetic compatibility --- AC–DC power converters --- electromagnetic interference filter --- matrix converters --- current source --- power density --- battery energy storage systems --- battery chargers --- active receivers --- frequency locking --- reference phase calibration --- synchronization --- wireless power transfer --- lithium-ion batteries --- SOC estimator --- parameter identification --- particle swarm optimization --- improved extended Kalman filter --- battery management system --- PMSG --- DC-link voltage control --- variable control gain --- disturbance observer --- lithium-ion power battery pack --- composite equalizer --- active equalization --- passive equalization --- control strategy and algorithm --- n/a --- common-mode inductor --- high-frequency modeling --- electromagnetic interference --- filter --- fault diagnosis --- condition monitoring --- induction machines --- support vector machines --- expert systems --- neural networks --- DC-AC power converters --- frequency-domain analysis --- impedance-based model --- Nyquist stability analysis --- small signal stability analysis --- harmonic linearization --- line start --- permanent magnet --- synchronous motor --- efficiency motor --- rotor design --- harmonics --- hybrid power filter --- active power filter --- power quality --- total harmonic distortion --- equivalent inductance --- leakage inductance --- switching frequency modelling --- induction motor --- current switching ripple --- multilevel inverter --- cascaded topology --- voltage doubling --- switched capacitor --- nearest level modulation (NLM) --- total harmonic distortion (THD) --- dead-time compensation --- power converters --- harmonics --- n/a

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