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Radio Galaxies at TeV Energies

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ISBN: 9783039287505 / 9783039287512 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-751-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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It is common believe that the centers of all galaxies exhibit supermassive black holes with masses ranging from millions up to billions of the mass of our Sun. By accreting surrounding matter, the luminosity of these galactic nuclei can outshine the emission of their host galaxies. If this is the case, they are called active galactic nuclei. Some of these objects eject powerful outflows composed of plasma, called jets. These jets can produce non-thermal radiation which observable across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio up to the gamma-ray frequencies. At highest frequencies (TeV range) most of the detected active galaxies have jets directed along or close to the line of sight. However, also galaxies with larger angles to the line of sight showing fascinating features were discovered, in seeming contradiction to traditional models for these so-called radio galaxies. Thus, the latter are of particular importance for understanding active galactic nuclei in general. This Special Issue contains reviews and research articles about the current knowledge of radio galaxies at TeV energies, including observational results and theoretical models. It is intended to guide the interested reader deeper into this fascinating discipline of modern day astronomy.

Two-Dimensional Electronics - Prospects and Challenges

ISBN: 9783038422495 9783038422501 Year: Pages: XVI, 248 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-09-02 17:56:27
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During the past 10 years, two-dimensional materials have found incredible attention in the scientific community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene, and many groups explored its potential for electronic applications. Meanwhile, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. At present, several hundred of these materials are known and part of them is considered to be useful for electronic applications. Rapid progress has been made in research concerning two-dimensional electronics, and a variety of transistors of different two-dimensional materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, e.g., MoS2 and WS2, and phosphorene, have been reported. Other areas where two-dimensional materials are considered promising are sensors, transparent electrodes, or displays, to name just a few. This Special Issue of Electronics is devoted to all aspects of two-dimensional materials for electronic applications, including material preparation and analysis, device fabrication and characterization, device physics, modeling and simulation, and circuits. The devices of interest include, but are not limited to transistors (both field-effect transistors and alternative transistor concepts), sensors, optoelectronics devices, MEMS and NEMS, and displays.

Selected Papers from the 2018 41st International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP)

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ISBN: 9783039210404 9783039210411 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-041-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue contains a series of excellent research works on telecommunications and signal processing, selected from the 2018 41st International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP) which was held on July 4–6, 2018, in Athens, Greece. The conference was organized in cooperation with the IEEE Region 8 (Europe, Middle East, and Africa), IEEE Greece Section, IEEE Czechoslovakia Section, and IEEE Czechoslovakia Section SP/CAS/COM Joint Chapter by seventeen universities from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Turkey, Taiwan, Japan, Slovak Republic, Spain, Bulgaria, France, Slovenia, Croatia, and Poland, for academics, researchers, and developers, and serves as a premier international forum for the annual exchange and promotion of the latest advances in telecommunication technology and signal processing. The aim of the conference is to bring together both novice and experienced scientists, developers, and specialists, to meet new colleagues, collect new ideas, and establish new cooperation between research groups from universities, research centers, and private sectors worldwide. This collection of 10 papers is highly recommended for researchers, and believed to be interesting, inspiring, and motivating for readers in their further research.

Novel Insights into Orbital Angular Momentum Beams: From Fundamentals, Devices to Applications

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039212231 9783039212248 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-224-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Optics and Lights
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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It is well-known by now that the angular momentum carried by elementary particles can be categorized as spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM). In the early 1900s, Poynting recognized that a particle, such as a photon, can carry SAM, which has only two possible states, i.e., clockwise and anticlockwise circular polarization states. However, only fairly recently, in 1992, Allen et al. discovered that photons with helical phase fronts can carry OAM, which has infinite orthogonal states. In the past two decades, the OAM-carrying beam, due to its unique features, has gained increasing interest from many different research communities, including physics, chemistry, and engineering. Its twisted phase front and intensity distribution have enabled a variety of applications, such as micromanipulation, laser beam machining, nonlinear matter interactions, imaging, sensing, quantum cryptography and classical communications. This book aims to explore novel insights of OAM beams. It focuses on state-of-the-art advances in fundamental theories, devices and applications, as well as future perspectives of OAM beams.

Cosmic Plasmas and Electromagnetic Phenomena

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ISBN: 9783039214655 9783039214662 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-466-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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During the past few decades, plasma science has witnessed a great growth in laboratory studies, in simulations, and in space. Plasma is the most common phase of ordinary matter in the universe. It is a state in which ionized matter (even as low as 1%) becomes highly electrically conductive. As such, long-range electric and magnetic fields dominate its behavior. Cosmic plasmas are mostly associated with stars, supernovae, pulsars and neutron stars, quasars and active galaxies at the vicinities of black holes (i.e., their jets and accretion disks). Cosmic plasma phenomena can be studied with different methods, such as laboratory experiments, astrophysical observations, and theoretical/computational approaches (i.e., MHD, particle-in-cell simulations, etc.). They exhibit a multitude of complex magnetohydrodynamic behaviors, acceleration, radiation, turbulence, and various instability phenomena. This Special Issue addresses the growing need of the plasma science principles in astrophysics and presents our current understanding of the physics of astrophysical plasmas, their electromagnetic behaviors and properties (e.g., shocks, waves, turbulence, instabilities, collimation, acceleration and radiation), both microscopically and macroscopically. This Special Issue provides a series of state-of-the-art reviews from international experts in the field of cosmic plasmas and electromagnetic phenomena using theoretical approaches, astrophysical observations, laboratory experiments, and state-of-the-art simulation studies.

Visible Light Communication and Positioning

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ISBN: 9783039214358 9783039214365 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-436-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In recent years, wireless communications have significantly evolved due to the advanced technology of smartphones;, portable devices; and the rapid growth of Internet of Things, e-Health, and intelligent transportation systems . Moreover, there is anare increasing need fors of emerging intelligent services like positioning and sensing in athe future intelligence society. Recent years have witnessed the growing research interests and activities in the communication and intelligencet services in the optical wireless spectrum, as a complementary technology to more

Assimilation of Remote Sensing Data into Earth System Models

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ISBN: 9783039216406 9783039216413 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-641-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In the Earth sciences, a transition is currently occurring in multiple fields towards an integrated Earth system approach, with applications including numerical weather prediction, hydrological forecasting, climate impact studies, ocean dynamics estimation and monitoring, and carbon cycle monitoring. These approaches rely on coupled modeling techniques using Earth system models that account for an increased level of complexity of the processes and interactions between atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and terrestrial surfaces. A crucial component of Earth system approaches is the development of coupled data assimilation of satellite observations to ensure consistent initialization at the interface between the different subsystems. Going towards strongly coupled data assimilation involving all Earth system components is a subject of active research. A lot of progress is being made in the ocean–atmosphere domain, but also over land. As atmospheric models now tend to address subkilometric scales, assimilating high spatial resolution satellite data in the land surface models used in atmospheric models is critical. This evolution is also challenging for hydrological modeling. This book gathers papers reporting research on various aspects of coupled data assimilation in Earth system models. It includes contributions presenting recent progress in ocean–atmosphere, land–atmosphere, and soil–vegetation data assimilation.

Drones for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Monitoring

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ISBN: 9783039219803 9783039219810 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-981-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have already become an affordable and cost-efficient tool to quickly map a targeted area for many emerging applications in the arena of ecological monitoring and biodiversity conservation. Managers, owners, companies, and scientists are using professional drones equipped with high-resolution visible, multispectral, or thermal cameras to assess the state of ecosystems, the effect of disturbances, or the dynamics and changes within biological communities inter alia. We are now at a tipping point on the use of drones for these type of applications over natural areas. UAV missions are increasing but most of them are testing applicability. It is time now to move to frequent revisiting missions, aiding in the retrieval of important biophysical parameters in ecosystems or mapping species distributions. This Special Issue shows UAV applications contributing to a better understanding of biodiversity and ecosystem status, threats, changes, and trends. It documents the enhancement of knowledge in ecological integrity parameters mapping, long-term ecological monitoring based on drones, mapping of alien species spread and distribution, upscaling ecological variables from drone to satellite images: methods and approaches, rapid risk and disturbance assessment using drones, mapping albedo with UAVs, wildlife tracking, bird colony and chimpanzee nest mapping, habitat mapping and monitoring, and a review on drones for conservation in protected areas.

Internet of Things and Sensors Networks in 5G Wireless Communications

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ISBN: 9783039281480 9783039281497 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-149-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The Internet of Things (IoT) has attracted much attention from society, industry and academia as a promising technology that can enhance day to day activities, and the creation of new business models, products and services, and serve as a broad source of research topics and ideas. A future digital society is envisioned, composed of numerous wireless connected sensors and devices. Driven by huge demand, the massive IoT (mIoT) or massive machine type communication (mMTC) has been identified as one of the three main communication scenarios for 5G. In addition to connectivity, computing and storage and data management are also long-standing issues for low-cost devices and sensors. The book is a collection of outstanding technical research and industrial papers covering new research results, with a wide range of features within the 5G-and-beyond framework. It provides a range of discussions of the major research challenges and achievements within this topic.

Optical Communications and Networking: Prospects in Industrial Applications

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039282586 9783039282593 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-259-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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In the past few decades, the optical communication industry has explored multiple degrees of freedom of the photon, such as time, wavelength, amplitude, phase, polarization, and space, to significantly reduce the cost/bit of data transmission by increasing the capacity per fiber through multiplexing technology and by reducing the size and power through electronic and photonic integration. This book aims to explore the latest advancements in this industry, including the technologies in devices, systems, and network levels with applications from short-reach chip-to-chip interconnections to long-haul backbone communications at the trans-oceanic distance.

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