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Nanofibres: Friend or Foe?

ISBN: 9783038422785 9783038422792 Year: Pages: XII, 178 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-19 09:28:28
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Nanofibers, particularly those of a carbonaceous content, have received increased interest in the past two decades due to their outstanding physico-chemical characteristics and their possibility to form and contribute towards a plethora of potentially advantageous materials for consumer, industrial and medical applications. Despite this, and together with the numerous research studies and published articles that have sought to investigate these aspects, the potential impact of CNTs is still not understood. Whether or not nanofibers may be able to provide a sophisticated alternative to conventional materials is still debatable, whilst their effects upon both environmental and human health are highly equivocal. How nanofibers are conceived can determine how they may interact with different environments, such as the human body. Understanding each key step of the synthesis and production of nanofibers to their use within potential applications is therefore essential in gaining an insight into how they may be perceived by any biological system and environment. Thus, obtaining such information will enable all scientific communities to begin to realize the potential advantages posed by nanofibers. The aim of this Special Issue therefore, was to provide a collective overview of nanofibers; ‘from synthesis to application’. The Issue particularly focuses upon carbon-based nanofibers, but also highlights alternative nanofiber types. Emphasis is given holistically, with articles discussing the production routes of nanofibers, their plight during their life-cycle (origin to applied form and effects over time), as well as how nanofibers could either incite conflict, or provide aid to human and environmental health.

A Celebration of the Ties That Bind Us: Connections Between Actuarial Science and Mathematical Finance

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ISBN: 9783038427339 9783038427346 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-734-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-22 12:19:25
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The articles in this volume are contributed by scholars who are not only experts in areas of Actuarial Science (AS) and Mathematical Finance (MF), but also those who present diverse perspectives from both industry and academia. Topics from multiple areas, such as Stochastic Modeling, Credit Risk, Monte Carlo Simulation, and Pension Valuation, among others, that were maybe thought to be the domain of one type of risk manager, are shown time and again to have deep value to other areas of risk management as well. The articles in this collection, in my opinion, contribute techniques, ideas, and overviews of tools that folks in both AS and MF will find useful and interesting to implement in their work. It is also my hope that this collection will inspire future collaboration between those who seek an interdisciplinary approach to risk management.

Surface Chemistry and Catalysis

ISBN: 9783038422860 9783038422877 Year: Pages: XX, 280 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-05 10:49:54
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Summary/Description for Distribution Channels: The present printed edition of the Special Issue “Surface Chemistry and Catalysis” published in Catalysts aims to cover some of the recent advances in the field of heterogeneous catalysis that can be obtained by means of advanced characterization techniques, computational calculations and time-resolved methods, with particular emphasis on structure–activity relationships (SARs). It consists of 14 high-quality theoretical and experimental studies on various aspects on catalysis, involving the electrochemical promotion in catalysis, H2O dissociation, H2 production, Fisher–Tropsch synthesis, CO oxidation, among others.

State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Belgium 2017

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ISBN: 9783038972426 9783038972433 Year: Pages: 300 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-243-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-17 12:18:12
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.Belgium is a small country. The days of mining minerals and ores from the former colony, Congo, have long passed by and the last coal mine was closed 25 years ago. Now, there are hardly any physical resources in Belgium which can be exploited in materials research and development or industry. Materials research in Belgium bypasses this drawback by focussing on highly technological research fields, not requiring vast amounts of raw material. This approach includes the development of new analytical methods for the characterization of materials, research into new advanced functional materials as well as defining new industrial processes utilizing existing materials. This book compiles recent review and research papers from Belgian universities, covering a wide range of research disciplines in materials science. It thus presents a contemporary view on materials research activities in Belgium.

The Behavioural Sciences in Dialogue with the Theory and Practice of Analytical Psychology

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Just over one hundred years ago, Jung coined the term, “Analytical Psychology” to differentiate his theories about the nature and dynamics of the human psyche from the “psychoanalytic” theories of his compatriot, Sigmund Freud. Whilst Jung and his compatriots in related schools of “depth psychology” spoke of “the unconscious” as the driving instinctual force of the mind, scientists today refer principally to the “brain” and its neurological functions and processes. Despite this change in focus, Analytical Psychology, as a recognized corpus of thought and therapeutic practice in its own right, continues to incite dialogue and debate with many other academic traditions, praxes, and fields of study, far beyond its own psychological and psychiatric disciplinary origins. Ideas of analytical psychology can be found in disciplines as wide ranging as business studies, social theory, education, neuroscience, political thought, linguistics, literature, history and historiography, religious studies, quantum physics, environmental studies, fine art and art history, media, and film. Similarly, analytical psychology as a therapeutic practice, is very much in demand within an eclectic range of fields of human care, including those that are relatively new, such as, terminal health care, HIV counselling, political consultation, reconciliation of interfaith groups, relief work to victims of natural disaster, consultation on matters of ecological sustainability, and so on. Analytical psychology’s widespread appeal demonstrates its usefulness in establishing connections between otherwise disparate disciplines so as to make better sense of our human behaviors, motivations, and values. [...]

Calibration/Validation of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometers and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038423188 9783038423195 Year: Pages: X, 548 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-319-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-17 12:17:45
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In a new era of global awareness and globalization, what’s happening around the world in real-time such as hurricanes, volcanic eruption, fires, drought, pollution, and other environmental and climate challenges are becoming increasingly more important and affect people’s lives. To meet these challenges, Earth observations from a new generation of satellites have now become available giving us unprecedented capabilities to monitor and study our planet. With global coverage twice daily for the next several decades, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometers on polar orbiting satellites provide rich and publically available data sets for a large number of land, atmosphere, and ocean applications, including the monitoring of aerosols, cloud properties, radiation budget, sea surface temperature, ocean color, active fire, albedo, snow and ice, vegetation, land use/land cover, night-lights from human activities, and natural disasters. Calibration and validation of these satellite observations are essential to ensure the quality, accuracy, precision, and stability of the data for the applications. This book will review recent advances in satellite optical sensor calibration and validation methodologies, algorithms, and techniques. Example calibration and validation of environmental data products are also discussed. It aims to serve all professionals, researchers, students, scientists alike in academics, industries, government, and beyond.

Gender and STEM: Understanding Segregation in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038971474 9783038971481 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-148-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Sociology --- Arts in general --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-06 09:20:30
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This volume features thirteen original chapters on the causes and consequences of gender segregation in scientific, technical, engineering, and mathematics (“STEM”) occupations and fields of study. Although women have made great strides in equalizing access to labor markets and higher education, many STEM fields—particularly in the physical sciences and engineering—remain strongholds of gender segregation in the United States and other reputably gender-progressive societies. Policymakers, business leaders and activists have launched countless initiatives to diversify access to lucrative, high status occupations and ameliorate labor shortages that diminish innovation and competitiveness.Contributors to this volume apply diverse theoretical lenses and methodological approaches to understand the individual, interactional, organizational, and cultural dynamics that drive this segregation in the United States. Results show that the gender composition of scientific and technical fields varies a great deal over time and across organizational contexts and socio-demographic groups defined by race, ethnicity, class, and sexuality. But despite this variability, STEM work and STEM workers are widely presumed to be naturally and inevitably masculine. Research presented here reveals how these stereotypes combine with cultural beliefs about natural and fundamental differences between men and women to produce gendered aspirations and reinforce inequalities in the US scientific and technical workforce.

Keywords

Gender --- STEM --- Science --- Engineering --- Mathematics --- Segregation --- Inequality --- Women --- Men --- Race/ethnicity --- Sexuality

Computer Science and Engineering Education for Pre-collegiate Students and Teachers

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ISBN: 9783038979401 / 9783038979418 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-941-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Education
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Now more than ever, as a worldwide STEM community, we need to know what pre-collegiate teachers and students explore, learn, and implement in relation to computer science and engineering education. As computer science and engineering education are not always “stand-alone” courses in pre-collegiate schools, how are pre-collegiate teachers and students learning about these topics? How can these subjects be integrated? Explore six articles in this book that directly relate to the currently hot topics of computer science and engineering education as they tie into pre-collegiate science, technology, and mathematics realms. There is a systematic review article to set the stage of the problem. Following this overview are two teacher-focused articles on professional development in computer science and entrepreneurship venture training. The final three articles focus on varying levels of student work including pre-collegiate secondary students’ exploration of engineering design technology, future science teachers’ (collegiate students) perceptions of engineering, and pre-collegiate future engineers’ exploration of environmental radioactivity. All six articles speak to computer science and engineering education in pre-collegiate forums, but blend into the collegiate world for a look at what all audiences can bring to the conversation about these topics.

Geoinformatics in Citizen Science

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ISBN: 9783039210725 / 9783039210732 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-073-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The book features contributions that report original research in the theoretical, technological, and social aspects of geoinformation methods, as applied to supporting citizen science. Specifically, the book focuses on the technological aspects of the field and their application toward the recruitment of volunteers and the collection, management, and analysis of geotagged information to support volunteer involvement in scientific projects. Internationally renowned research groups share research in three areas: First, the key methods of geoinformatics within citizen science initiatives to support scientists in discovering new knowledge in specific application domains or in performing relevant activities, such as reliable geodata filtering, management, analysis, synthesis, sharing, and visualization; second, the critical aspects of citizen science initiatives that call for emerging or novel approaches of geoinformatics to acquire and handle geoinformation; and third, novel geoinformatics research that could serve in support of citizen science.

Scientific and Engineering Progress on Aluminum-Based Light-Weight Materials: Research Reports from the German Collaborative Research Center 692

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ISBN: 9783038971962 9783038971979 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-197-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-21 10:25:03
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Aluminum-based light-weight materials offer great potential for novel engineering applications, particularly when they are optimized to exhibit high strength and yet provide sufficient reliability. The last decade has thus seen substantial activity in the research fields of high-strength aluminum alloys and aluminum-based composite materials.For twelve years, backed by solid funding from the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG), scientists of the Collaborative Research Center, “High-strength aluminum-based light-weight materials for safety components” (SFB 692) at TU Chemnitz, Germany, have contributed to this research area. Our research efforts have been focused on three main areas: ultrafine-grained aluminum alloys produced by severe plastic deformation; aluminum matrix composites; and aluminum-based composite materials (including material combinations such as magnesium/aluminum or steel/aluminum and the corresponding joining and forming technologies). The framework of SFB 692 has served as a base for numerous scientific collaborations between scientists in the fields of materials science, design engineering, production engineering, mechanics, and even economics—in Chemnitz, and with many well-established international experts around the world.In this Special Issue, we present recent results on high-strength aluminum-based light-weight materials that also provide a broad overview of research activities in SFB 692 and elsewhere.

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