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The Perils of Peace

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ISBN: 9780199660797 Year: Pages: 337 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660797.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 097779
Subject: Medicine (General) --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2015-05-14 11:01:05
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When the war was over in 1945, Germany was a country with no government, little functioning infrastructure, millions of refugees and homeless people, and huge foreign armies living largely off the land. Large parts of the country were covered in rubble, with no clean drinking water, electricity, or gas. Hospitals overflowed with patients, but were short of beds, medicines, and medical personnel. In these conditions, the potential for epidemics and public health disasters was severe. This is a study of how the four occupiers—Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States—attempted to keep their own troops and the ex-enemy population alive. While the war was still being fought, German public health was a secondary consideration for them, an unaffordable and undeserved luxury. But once fighting ceased and the occupation began, it rapidly turned into a urgent priority. Public health was now recognized as an indispensable component of creating order, keeping the population governable, and facilitating the reconstruction of German society. But they faced a number of insoluble problems in the process: Which Germans could be trusted to work with the occupiers, and how were they to be identified? Who could be tolerated because of a lack of alternatives? How, if at all, could former Nazis be reformed and reintegrated into German society? What was the purpose of the occupation anyway? This is the first carefully researched comparison of the four occupation zones which looks at the occupation through the prism of public health, an essential service fundamentally shaped by political and economic criteria, and which in turn was to determine the success or failure of the occupation.

Environmental Protection and Transitions from Conflict to Peace

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ISBN: 9780198784630 Year: Pages: 512 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198784630.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Law --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-05 11:02:27
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This book is the first targeted work in the legal literature that investigates environmental challenges in the aftermath of conflict. The volume brings together academics, policy-makers, and practitioners from different disciplines to clarify policies and practices of environmental protection and key legal considerations related to normative frameworks (e.g. international environmental law, international humanitarian law, transitional justice, and human rights), the treatment of substantive principles (e.g. proportionality under jus in bello and jus post bellum, environmental integrity), ‘shared responsibility’, and accountability mechanisms for environmental damage. By providing a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of environmental protection and natural resource management during the transition to peace, the volume reveals strong links between the peace-orientation of jus post bellum and environmental principles, such as intergenerational equity and precaution. There is a great deal of work to do to ensure greater protection of the environment before, during, and after conflict. It remains a challenge to align protection with the political interest of states, and the increasing involvement of non-state actors in armed conflict. This volume marks a starting point for an urgently needed space for states, international organizations, and civil society to discuss, and debate conflict and the environment. By engaging with the International Law Commission’s 2016 Draft Principles on the Protection of the Environment in Relation to Armed Conflicts, the volume adds clarity to the law and momentum to the development of the law in this important area.

Jus Post Bellum: Mapping the Normative Foundations

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ISBN: 9780199685899 Year: Pages: 600 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199685899.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: Universiteit Leiden
Subject: Law --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-27 11:01:21
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The successful transition from armed conflict to peace is one of the greatest challenges of contemporary warfare. The laws and principles governing transitions from conflict to peace (jus post bellum) have only recently gained attention in legal scholarship. This volume investigates questions concerning the core of jus post bellum: the law (“jus”), the temporal aspect (“post”), and different types of armed conflict (“bellum”). It is the first volume to clarify the different legal meanings and components of the concept, including its implications in contemporary politics and practice. It explores the nature of jus post bellum as a concept, including its foundations, criticisms, and relationship to related concepts (e.g. Transitional Justice, Responsibility to Protect). It rethinks the nexus of the concept to jus ad bellum and jus in bello and its relevance in internal armed conflicts and peacebuilding. It examines problems in relation to the ending of conflict, including indicators for the end of conflict, exit strategies, and institutional responses. It also identifies contours of a “jus,” drawing on disparate bodies and sources of international law such as peace agreements, treaty law, self-determination, norms governing peace operations, and the status of foreign armed forces, environmental law, human rights, and amnesty law. Taking into account perspectives from multiple disciplines, the book will be relevant to scholars, practitioners, and students across many fields, such as peace and conflict studies, international relations, philosophy, political science, and international law.

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