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Environmental Governance in Latin America

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ISBN: 9781137574084 9781137505729 Year: Pages: 338 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-137-50572-9 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Environmental Technology --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-15 10:49:41
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This book is open access under a CC-BY license. The contributors investigate a broad range of emerging socio-environmental challenges faced by contemporary Latin America. By using environmental governance as an overarching analytical concept, they cross territorial, sectorial, and institutional boundaries to address the nature/society nexus.

Keywords

governance --- society --- environment

Chapter: 'Ten Theses on the Subject of Biology and Politics: Conceptual, Methodological, and Biopolitical Considerations' from book: The Palgrave Handbook of Biology and Society (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781137528780 9781137528797 Year: Pages: 26 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-52879-7_38 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Political Science --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-10 17:00:57
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In this chapter, I develop a set of concepts and methodological principles that researchers might draw on as they try to elucidate the processes by which the engagement of humans with their social worlds, material environments, and historical cultures results in the formation of a self in subject, corporeal, and biological dimensions. I forge a conceptual language and rules for analysis that may enable scholars to negotiate converging accounts of how the social norms, lived environments, and power relations through which people develop a sense of self are bound up with processes through which biological organisms compose and recompose themselves over time.

Keywords

biopolitics --- biology --- society

Chapter: 'Introduction' from book: Public Brainpower: Civil Society and Natural Resource Management (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9783319606262 9783319606279 Year: Pages: 22 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60627-9 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-30 16:49:01
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This introductory chapter establishes the analytical framework for the edited volume. The literature on the resource curse and institutions is briefly discussed, along with the work on civil society and the public sphere by Almond and Verba, Dahl, Habermas and Putnam. Drawing on these classics, the theoretical concept of ‘public brainpower’ is formulated. The main pillar of public brainpower is polycentricity, or the coexistence of many different public actors freely expressing their thoughts: individual citizens, political parties, trade unions, charities, companies, research institutes, religious institutions, mass media and government institutions. The more polycentric a society is, the greater is its brainpower: its memory becomes more comprehensive and multifaceted, different actors can perform quality control of each other’s ideas and arguments, and it is more difficult to repress challenging views. Above all, a polycentric society has a broader base for creativity. The greater the public brainpower of a society, the better its management of natural resources. Finally, the book's 18 case studies of oil- and gas-producing countries are briefly presented, along with the methodology and definitions of key terminology used throughout the volume.

Chapter: 'Norway: Public Debate and the Management of Petroleum Resources and Revenues' from book: Public Brainpower: Civil Society and Natural Resource Management (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9783319606262 9783319606279 Year: Pages: 28 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60627-9_13 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-30 16:54:11
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This chapter assesses the importance of civil society involvement and public debate for Norwegian petroleum governance. It finds that during the early years of the country’s oil and gas development, the most important choices were made by a small number of decision-makers in government with little input from the rest of society. The attitude of government officials was therefore decisive for Norway’s early successes. During the two first decades of Norway’s petroleum era, also economists at the Ministry of Finance, the Norwegian School of Economics, Statistics Norway and the University of Oslo played important roles. One of the greatest successes of Norwegian oil and gas governance, the sovereign wealth fund, was created by technocrats in interaction with politicians. However, over time, and in a way similar to the Netherlands, civil society and public debate came to play more influential roles. What characterizes contemporary Norwegian petroleum governance is that it has many legs to stand on: an active and diverse civil society, free and diverse media, many political parties representing differing interests, numerous institutions of research and higher education and, importantly, a strong technocracy inside and outside government. In combination, these legs provide for both reliability and dynamism as Norwegian petroleum governance evolves. Finally, a key aspect of Norway’s Nordic model is constant compromise—which is difficult to achieve in more polarized societies.

Chapter: 'Kazakhstan: Civil Society and Natural Resource Policy in Kazakhstan' from book: Public Brainpower: Civil Society and Natural Resource Management (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9783319606262 9783319606279 Year: Pages: 19 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60627-9_9 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-30 16:57:32
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In Kazakhstan, civil society is held back and has had a limited role in the management of the petroleum sector. As this chapter notes, civil society has had little experience of promoting its own interests vis-à-vis the state, and public discussion of natural resource issues has been mainly government-driven. The fact that Kazakhstan made a notable step forward—from being a collapsing socialist economy in the 1990s to becoming a regional economic player with improved social and economic performance—has helped to legitimize non-transparent natural resource policies. As long as the socio-economic situation continues to improve or remains stable, the non-transparent management of natural resources is likely to be accepted by the population, which, like the Russian population, puts a premium on stability. The relative passivity of civil society has been compensated by Kazakhstan’s exposure to international initiatives and organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and numerous UN agencies. As in Azerbaijan, the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) has provided a platform for some civil society engagement with industry and government.

Chapter: 'Russia: Public Debate and the Petroleum Sector' from book: Public Brainpower: Civil Society and Natural Resource Management (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9783319606262 9783319606279 Year: Pages: 28 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60627-9_15 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-30 17:00:32
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In Russia, civil society engagement with the petroleum sector is surprisingly rich and varied for a country that is ranked low on most democracy-related indicators. This chapter finds that there is a lively and varied public debate, with business associations, research institutes, independent experts, indigenous organizations and the few surviving independent media actively and often competently analysing and commenting on a broad range of issues related to the oil and gas sector. Russians were early users of social media, which occasionally also function as a platform for discussion of petroleum-policy issues. However, the real impact of civil society on decision-making and policy formulation in the petroleum sector is not as great as the diversity of actors and discussion might imply. One key reason is the tight government control over mainstream media outlets. The situation for free speech and civil society worsened steadily from around 2004 to 2016. As in neighbouring Kazakhstan, the Russian population puts a high premium on stability over freedom. While a central concern in this book is whether the media and civil society have any influence on the petroleum sector, in Russia the paradoxical situation is that the relationship is often reversed: the gas company Gazprom, rather than another organizational vehicle, is used by the government to control key mass media, and the oil company Yukos played a central role in promoting civil society until its main owner Mikhail Khodorkovsky was arrested and the company was carved up.

Social Theory of Fear

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ISBN: 9780230103498 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_392748 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan Grant: OAPEN-UK
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Fear has long served elites. They rely on fear to keep and expand their privileges and control the masses. In the current crisis of the capitalist world system, elites in the United States, along with other central countries, promote fear of crime and terrorism. They shaped these fears so that people looked to authorities for security, which permitted extension of apparatuses of coercion like police and military forces. In the face of growing oppression, rebellion against elite hegemony remains possible. This book offers an analysis of the crisis and strategies for rebellion.

Keywords

law --- angst --- society --- fear --- samenleving --- wetgeving --- terreur --- terror

A Philosophy of Israel Education: A Relational Approach

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ISBN: 9783319307787 9783319307794 Year: Pages: 64 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-30779-4 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Philosophy --- Education
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-10 17:16:34
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This book develops a new philosophy of Israel education. “Person-centered” Israel education is concerned with developing in individual learners the ability to understand and make rational, emotional, and ethical decisions about Israel, and about the challenges Israel regularly faces, whether they be existential, spiritual, democratic, humanitarian, national, etc. Chazan begins by laying out the terms of the conversation then examines the six-pronged theory of “person-centered” Israel education to outline the aims, content, pedagogy, and educators needed to implement this program. Finally, the author meditates on what a transformation from ethnic to ethical education might look like in this context and others.

The Academic Book of the Future

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ISBN: 9781137595775 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.1057/9781137595775 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Education --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-17 17:29:54
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This book is open access under a CC-BY licence. What makes a book 'academic'? What spaces, physical and digital, can they be found in? How are they made, bought, and read? These questions are tackled by a cross-section of thirteen experts from the fields of bookselling, publishing, university libraries, and academic research in this volume of essays, which was produced in conjunction with the team from the AHRC/British Library Academic Book of the Future Project as an accelerated publishing challenge for the first ever Academic Book Week. The topics include campus bookshops and bookselling, the role of national libraries, Open Access, the Research Excellence Framework, and publishing innovation. The approaches explore the realities of the present and venture all the way through to possible futures. There is something here for everyone who is connected to academic books – however these are defined, and whatever shape they are read in.

Chapter 9: 'Crowd Spatial Patterns at Bus Stops: Security Implications and Effects of Warning Messages' from book: Safety and Security in Transit Environments: An Interdisciplinary Approach

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ISBN: 9781137556363 Year: Pages: 23 DOI: 10.1057/9781137457653_9 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Social and Public Welfare
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-18 11:42:04
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This is a chapter from Safety and Security in Transit Environments: An Interdisciplinary Approach edited by Vania Ceccato and Andrew Newton. This chapter is available open access under a CC BY license. As other chapters in Safety and Security in Transit Environments assert, crimes such as pickpocketing can concentrate near bus stops, and crowding and congestion is a factor that heightens this risk. But to target interventions effectively, it is useful to determine what local-level interactions characterise this crowding behaviour. This paper aims to provide a first step to using data collected from laboratory experiments to address questions from crime and transport research. The experiment considered differences in interpersonal distances to further analyse crowding behaviour to attain further insight that could narrow the focus of possible interventions. Audio warnings are examined as a possible solution, and findings show that crowding peaks when passengers board the bus, and audio messages may be one approach for addressing this. To conclude, implications of identifying boarding as a problem area, and the effectiveness of warning messages as a situational crime prevention tool are discussed.

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