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Arbeit. Philosophische, juristische und kulturwissenschaftliche Studien

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Book Series: Schwabe interdisziplinär ISBN: 9783796533365 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_587950 Language: German
Publisher: Schwabe Verlag Grant: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) - OAPEN-CH - 163514
Subject: Political Science --- Philosophy --- Social Sciences --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-19 11:01:14
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Abstract

We may consider labour as boon or bane ‒ man’s existence is not conceivable without labour. The expulsion from the Garden of Eden can be understood as a punishment for the consumption of the forbidden fruit from the tree of knowledge, but it can likewise be interpreted as the perfection of God’s creation. Hence only beyond Eden, God’s creature becomes man. He or she becomes human by cultivat-ing the earth, by working. Labour is not only a necessary evil in order to secure existence, nor does it serve as a means for self-preservation, but also for self-fulfillment. Labour is the epitome of the ability of self-being and thus of man’s liberty.

Endlose Kälte

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Book Series: Wirtschafts-, Sozial- und Umweltgeschichte ISBN: 9783796534683 Year: Pages: 523 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_587970 Language: German
Publisher: Schwabe Verlag Grant: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) - OAPEN-CH - 163522
Subject: History --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-19 11:01:11
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Abstract

Human societies are highly exposed to climate and weather conditions.. This applies in particular to the pre-industrial period. This volume presents a comprehensive and detailed climate reconstruction for the area of the Burgundian Low Countries in the 15th century. The reconstruction consists of two parts. Detailed weather descriptions from contemporary sources are complemented by systematised indices of seasonal temperature and precipitation patterns. The climate reconstruction serves as the basis for research on the impact of the weather on the economy of the Burgundian Low Countries. For the late Middle Ages grain prices are a very reliable economic indicator. Grain, an indispensable staple food and important merchandise, is directly exposed to the weather for the major part of the year. Statistical analyses of the price development of different grains in conjunction with the seasonal climate indices show a close interlinkage of the two variables. However, climate condition is only one of many factors impacting on grain price; the other factors are also presented and discussed in detail.
Finally, the analysis of the development of grain prices reveals three phases of clearly increased prices in the 15th century: during the second half of the 1430s, at the beginning of the 1480s and during the last years of the 1480s until the beginning of the 1490s. The reasons for these grain price peaks, including weather conditions but also economic, political and other factors are outlined in the volume.

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