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Public Health Ethics: Cases Spanning the Globe

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Book Series: Public Health Ethics Analysis ISSN: 2211-6680 ISBN: 9783319238470 Year: Volume: 3 Pages: 329 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-23847-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Biotechnology --- Medicine (General) --- Pharmacy and materia medica --- Manufactures
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-16 18:55:44
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This Open Access book highlights the ethical issues and dilemmas that arise in the practice of public health. It is also a tool to support instruction, debate, and dialogue regarding public health ethics. Although the practice of public health has always included consideration of ethical issues, the field of public health ethics as a discipline is a relatively new and emerging area. There are few practical training resources for public health practitioners, especially resources which include discussion of realistic cases which are likely to arise in the practice of public health. This work discusses these issues on a case to case basis and helps create awareness and understanding of the ethics of public health care. The main audience for the casebook is public health practitioners, including front-line workers, field epidemiology trainers and trainees, managers, planners, and decision makers who have an interest in learning about how to integrate ethical analysis into their day to day public health practice. The casebook is also useful to schools of public health and public health students as well as to academic ethicists who can use the book to teach public health ethics and distinguish it from clinical and research ethics.

Keywords

Public Health --- Ethics

Informatics in the Future: Proceedings of the 11th European Computer Science Summit (ECSS 2015), Vienna, October 2015

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ISBN: 9783319557359 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-55735-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-19 16:43:15
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This volume discusses the prospects and evolution of informatics (or computer science), which has become the operating system of our world, and is today seen as the science of the information society. Its artifacts change the world and its methods have an impact on how we think about and perceive the world. Classical computer science is built on the notion of an “abstract” machine, which can be instantiated by software to any concrete problem-solving machine, changing its behavior in response to external and internal states, allowing for self-reflective and “intelligent” behavior. However, current phenomena such as the Web, cyber physical systems or the Internet of Things show us that we might already have gone beyond this idea, exemplifying a metamorphosis from a stand-alone calculator to the global operating system of our society.

Contemporary Bioethics: Islamic Perspective

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ISBN: 9783319184272 9783319184289 Year: Pages: 267 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-18428-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Philosophy --- Pharmacy and materia medica --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-12 17:55:24
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This book combines Islamic textual analysis with juridical methodology to engage dominant secular bioethics in the Muslim healthcare institutions.It integrates Islamic textual resources with medical information in order to provide careful analyses of the political, economic and cultural terrains that are necessary for bioethicists to effectively promote social justice

Dignity in the 21st Century: Middle East and West

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Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Philosophy ISSN: 2211-4548 ISBN: 9783319580203 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/10.1007/978-3-319-58020-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-19 16:22:05
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This book offers a unique and insightful analysis of Western and Middle Eastern concepts of dignity and illustrates them with examples of everyday life.Dignity in the 21st Century - Middle East and West is unique and insightful for a range of reasons. First, the book is co-authored by scholars from two different cultures (Middle East and West). As a result, the interpretations of dignity covered are broader than those in most Western publications. Second, the ambition of the book is to use examples from everyday life and fiction to debate a range of dignity interpretations supplemented by philosophical and theological theories. Thus, the book is designed to be accessible to a general readership, which is further facilitated because it is published with full open access. Third, the book does not defend one superior theory of dignity, but instead presents six Western approaches and one based on the Koran and then asks whether a common essence can be detected.The answer to the question whether a common essence can be detected between the Koranic interpretation of dignity and the main Western theories (virtue, Kant) is YES. The essence can be seen in dignity as a sense of self-worth, which persons have a duty to develop and respect in themselves and a duty to protect in others. The book ends with two recommendations. First, given the 7 concepts of dignity introduced in the book, meaningful dialogue can only be achieved if conversation partners clarify which variation they are using. Second, future collaborations between philosophers and psychologists might be helpful in moving theoretical knowledge on dignity as a sense of self-worth into practical action. The “scourges” of a sense of self-worth and dignity are identified by psychologists as violence, humiliation, disregard and embarrassment. To know more about how these can be avoided from psychologists, is helpful when protecting a sense of self-worth in others.

Science and Technology Governance and Ethics: A Global Perspective from Europe, India and China

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ISBN: 9783319146928 9783319146935 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 173 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-14693-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Chemical Engineering --- Business and Management --- Philosophy --- Manufactures
Added to DOAB on : 2015-07-24 16:44:14
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This book analyzes the possibilities for effective global governance of science in Europe, India and China. Authors from the three regions join forces to explore how ethical concerns over new technologies can be incorporated into global science and technology policies. The first chapter introduces the topic, offering a global perspective on embedding ethics in science and technology policy. Chapter Two compares the institutionalization of ethical debates in science, technology and innovation policy in three important regions: Europe, India and China. The third chapter explores public perceptions of science and technology in these same three regions. Chapter Four discusses public engagement in the governance of science and technology, and Chapter Five reviews science and technology governance and European values. The sixth chapter describes and analyzes values demonstrated in the constitution of the People’s Republic of China. Chapter Seven describes emerging evidence from India on the uses of science and technology for socio-economic development, and the quest for inclusive growth. In Chapter Eight, the authors propose a comparative framework for studying global ethics in science and technology. The following three chapters offer case studies and analysis of three emerging industries in India, China and Europe: new food technologies, nanotechnology and synthetic biology. Chapter 12 gathers all these threads for a comprehensive discussion on incorporating ethics into science and technology policy. The analysis is undertaken against the backdrop of different value systems and varying levels of public perception of risks and benefits. The book introduces a common analytical framework for the comparative discussion of ethics at the international level. The authors offer policy recommendations for effective collaboration among the three regions, to promote responsible governance in science and technology and a common analytical perspective in ethics.

Research Assessment in the Humanities: Towards Criteria and Procedures

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ISBN: 9783319290140 9783319290164 Year: Pages: 247 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-29016-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Education --- Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-27 17:56:04
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This book analyses and discusses the recent developments for assessing research quality in the humanities and related fields in the social sciences. Research assessments in the humanities are highly controversial and the evaluation of humanities research is delicate. While citation-based research performance indicators are widely used in the natural and life sciences, quantitative measures for research performance meet strong opposition in the humanities. This volume combines the presentation of state-of-the-art projects on research assessments in the humanities by humanities scholars themselves with a description of the evaluation of humanities research in practice presented by research funders. Bibliometric issues concerning humanities research complete the exhaustive analysis of humanities research assessment. The selection of authors is well-balanced between humanities scholars, research funders, and researchers on higher education. Hence, the edited volume succeeds in painting a comprehensive picture of research evaluation in the humanities. This book is valuable to university and science policy makers, university administrators, research evaluators, bibliometricians as well as humanities scholars who seek expert knowledge in research evaluation in the humanities.

River Basin Development and Human Rights in Eastern Africa — A Policy Crossroads

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ISBN: 9783319504681 9783319504698 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-50469-8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-14 12:38:17
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This book offers a devastating look at deeply flawed development processes driven by international finance, African governments and the global consulting industry. It examines major river basin development underway in the semi-arid borderlands of Ethiopia, Kenya and South Sudan and its disastrous human rights consequences for a half-million indigenous people. The volume traces the historical origins of Gibe III megadam construction along the Omo River in Ethiopia—in turn, enabling irrigation for commercial-scale agricultural development and causing radical reduction of downstream Omo and (Kenya's) Lake Turkana waters. Presenting case studies of indigenous Dasanech and northernmost Turkana livelihood systems and Gibe III linked impacts on them, the author predicts agropastoral and fishing economic collapse, region-wide hunger with exposure to disease epidemics, irreversible natural resource destruction and cross-border interethnic armed conflict spilling into South Sudan. The book identifies fundamental failings of government and development bank impact assessments, including their distortion or omission of mandated transboundary assessment, cumulative effects of the Gibe III dam and its linked Ethiopia-Kenya energy transmission 'highway' project, key hydrologic and human ecological characteristics, major earthquake threat in the dam region and widespread expropriation and political repression. Violations of internationally recognized human rights, especially by the Ethiopian government but also the Kenyan government, are extensive and on the increase—with collaboration by the development banks, in breach of their own internal operational procedures. A policy crossroads has now emerged. The author presents the alternative to the present looming catastrophe—consideration of development suspension in order to undertake genuinely independent transboundary assessment and a plan for continued development action within a human rights framework—forging a sustainable future for the indigenous peoples now directly threatened and for their respective eastern Africa states. Claudia Carr’s book is a treasure of detailed information gathered over many years concerning river basin development of the Omo River in Ethiopia and its impact on the peoples of the lower Omo Basin and the Lake Turkana region in Kenya. It contains numerous maps, charts, and photographs not previously available to the public. The book is highly critical of the environmental and human rights implications of the Omo River hydropower projects on both the local ethnic communities in Ethiopia and on the downstream Turkana in Kenya. David Shinn Former Ambassador to Ethiopia and to Burkina Faso Adjust Professor of International Affairs, The George Washington University, Washington D.C.

Fading Foundations: Probability and the Regress Problem

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Book Series: Synthese Library ISBN: 9783319582948 9783319582955 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58295-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 12:57:45
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This book addresses the age-old problem of infinite regresses in epistemology. How can we ever come to know something if knowing requires having good reasons, and reasons can only be good if they are backed by good reasons in turn? The problem has puzzled philosophers ever since antiquity, giving rise to what is often called Agrippa's Trilemma. The current volume approaches the old problem in a provocative and thoroughly contemporary way. Taking seriously the idea that good reasons are typically probabilistic in character, it develops and defends a new solution that challenges venerable philosophical intuitions and explains why they were mistakenly held. Key to the new solution is the phenomenon of fading foundations, according to which distant reasons are less important than those that are nearby. The phenomenon takes the sting out of Agrippa's Trilemma; moreover, since the theory that describes it is general and abstract, it is readily applicable outside epistemology, notably to debates on infinite regresses in metaphysics. The book is a potential game-changer and a must for any advanced student or researcher in the field.

Ethics Dumping: Case Studies from North-South Research Collaborations

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Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Research and Innovation Governance ISSN: 2452-0519 ISBN: 9783319647302 9783319647319 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64731-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: University of Central Lancashire
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 16:01:58
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This book provides original, up-to-date case studies of “ethics dumping” that were largely facilitated by loopholes in the ethics governance of low and middle-income countries. It is instructive even to experienced researchers since it provides a voice to vulnerable populations from the forementioned countries. Ensuring the ethical conduct of North-South collaborations in research is a process fraught with difficulties. The background conditions under which such collaborations take place include extreme differentials in available income and power, as well as a past history of colonialism, while differences in culture can add a new layer of complications. In this context, up-to-date case studies of unethical conduct are essential for research ethics training.

Transgovernance: Advancing Sustainability Governance

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ISBN: 9783642280085 9783642280092 Year: Pages: 324 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-28009-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Social Sciences --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-04 12:15:49
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‘Transgovernance: Advancing Sustainability Governance’ analyses the question what recent and ongoing changes in the relations between politics, science and media – together characterized as the emergence of a knowledge democracy – may imply for governance for sustainable development, on global and other levels of societal decision making, and the other way around: How can the discussion on sustainable development contribute to a knowledge democracy? How can concepts such as second modernity, reflexivity, configuration theory, (meta)governance theory and cultural theory contribute to a ‘transgovernance’ approach which goes beyond mainstream sustainability governance? This volume presents contributions from various angles: international relations, governance and metagovernance theory, (environmental) economicsand innovation science. It offers challenging insights regarding institutions andtransformation processes, and on the paradigms behind contemporary sustainability governance.This book gives the sustainability governance debate a new context. It transforms classical questions into new options for societal decision making and identifies starting points and strategies towards effective governance of transitions to sustainability.

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