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Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Nuclear Risks

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ISBN: 9784431558200 9784431558224 Year: Pages: 177 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-55822-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-27 11:23:34
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This book covers seismic probabilistic risk assessment (S-PRA) and related studies which have become more important to increase the safety of nuclear facilities against earthquakes and tsunamis in the face of the many uncertainties after the Fukushima accident. The topics are (1) Active faults and active tectonics important for seismic hazard assessment of nuclear facilities,(2) Seismic source modeling and simulation and modeling techniques indispensable for strong ground motion prediction, and (3) PRA with external hazard and risk communication. The Fukushima accident has showed us the limitations of the deterministic evaluation approach to external events (an earthquake and tsunami) in which there are many uncertainties. Furthermore, public anxiety regarding nuclear safety because of an unexpected threat caused by an earthquake or tsunami is growing. The current policy on the estimation of the design basis of ground motion as well as tsunami height still has not been improved following the Fukushima accident. In particular, the risk concept in a nuclear system regarding seismic motion and a tsunami beyond the design basis is indispensable. Therefore, research and development for PRA enhancing nuclear safety are being actively pursued not only in Japan but also worldwide. This book provides an opportunity for readers to consider the future direction of nuclear safety vis-à-vis natural disasters.

Bioeconomy: Shaping the Transition to a Sustainable, Biobased Economy

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ISBN: 9783319681511 9783319681528 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68152-8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-29 10:56:15
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This book defines the new field of "Bioeconomy" as the sustainable and innovative use of biomass and biological knowledge to provide food, feed, industrial products, bioenergy and ecological services. The chapters highlight the importance of bioeconomy-related concepts in public, scientific, and political discourse. Using an interdisciplinary approach, the authors outline the dimensions of the bioeconomy as a means of achieving sustainability.

Integrated Groundwater Management

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783319235752 9783319235769 Year: Pages: 762 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-23576-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 18:37:19
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The aim of this book is to document for the first time the dimensions and requirements of effective integrated groundwater management (IGM). Groundwater management is a formidable challenge, one that remains one of humanity’s foremost priorities. It has become a largely non-renewable resource that is overexploited in many parts of the world. In the 21st century, the issue moves from how to simply obtain the water we need to how we manage it sustainably for future generations, future economies, and future ecosystems. The focus then becomes one of understanding the drivers and current state of the groundwater resource, and restoring equilibrium to at-risk aquifers. Many interrelated dimensions, however, come to bear when trying to manage groundwater effectively. An integrated approach to groundwater necessarily involves many factors beyond the aquifer itself, such as surface water, water use, water quality, and ecohydrology. Moreover, the science by itself can only define the fundamental bounds of what is possible; effective IGM must also engage the wider community of stakeholders to develop and support policy and other socioeconomic tools needed to realize effective IGM.In order to demonstrate IGM, this book covers theory and principles, embracing: 1) an overview of the dimensions and requirements of groundwater management from an international perspective; 2) the scale of groundwater issues internationally and its links with other sectors, principally energy and climate change; 3) groundwater governance with regard to principles, instruments and institutions available for IGM; 4) biophysical constraints and the capacity and role of hydroecological and hydrogeological science including water quality concerns; and 5) necessary tools including models, data infrastructures, decision support systems and the management of uncertainty. Examples of effective, and failed, IGM are given. Throughout, the importance of the socioeconomic context that connects all effective IGM is emphasized. Taken as a whole, this work relates the many facets of effective IGM, from the catchment to global perspective.

Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea

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Book Series: MARE Publication Series ISSN: 2212-6260 ISBN: 9783319270050 9783319270067 Year: Volume: 10 Pages: 253 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-27006-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-15 18:13:30
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This edited volume presents a comprehensive and coherent interdisciplinary analysis of challenges and possibilities for sustainable governance of the Baltic Sea ecosystem by combining knowledge and approaches from natural and social sciences. Focusing on the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM) and associated multi-level, multi-sector and multi-actor challenges, the book provides up-to-date descriptions and analyses of environmental governance structures and processes at the macro-regional Baltic Sea level. Organised in two parts, Part 1 presents in-depth case studies of environmental governance practices and challenges linked to five key environmental problems - eutrophication, chemical pollution, overfishing, oil discharges and invasive species. Part 2 analyses and compares governance challenges and opportunities across the five case studies, focusing on governance structures and EAM implementation, knowledge integration and science support, as well as stakeholder communication and participation. Based on these cross-case comparisons, this book also draws a set of general conclusions on possible ways of improving the governance of the Baltic Sea by promoting what are identified as vital functions of environmental governance: coordination, integration, interdisciplinarity, precaution, deliberation, communication and adaptability.

S-BPM in the Production Industry: A Stakeholder Approach

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ISBN: 9783319484655 9783319484662 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-48466-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Business and Management --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 18:08:28
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This volume presents several case studies highlighting the latest findings in Industry 4.0 projects utilizing S-BPM features. Their potential is explored in detail, while the limits of engineering a company from a communication-centred perspective are also discussed.After a general introduction and an overview of the book in chapter 1, chapter 2 starts by condensing the industrial challenges driven by the German “Industry 4.0” trend to form a concrete vision for future production industries. Subsequently, chapter 3 introduces the basic concepts of S-BPM and its capabilities, in particular for supporting the restructuring of processes. The next three chapters then present various case studies, e.g. at an SME offering the production of atypical, unique and special purpose machinery, equipment and technologically complex units particularly useful in the automotive and electronic industries; and at a further SME producing highly-customized floor cleaning machines. Rounding out the coverage, the last two chapters summarize the achievements and lessons learned with regard to the road ahead.Overall, the book provides a realistic portrait of the status quo based on current findings, and outlines the future activities to be pursued in order to establish stakeholder-centred digital production systems. As such, developers, educators, and practitioners will find both the conceptual background and results from the field reflecting the state-of-the-art in vertical and horizontal process integration.

Demystifying Climate Models: A Users Guide to Earth System Models

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Book Series: Earth Systems Data and Models ISSN: 2364-5830 ISBN: 9783662489574 9783662489598 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 274 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-48959-8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Meteorology and Climatology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-15 18:27:33
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This book demystifies the models we use to simulate present and future climates, allowing readers to better understand how to use climate model results. In order to predict the future trajectory of the Earth’s climate, climate-system simulation models are necessary. When and how do we trust climate model predictions? The book offers a framework for answering this question. It provides readers with a basic primer on climate and climate change, and offers non-technical explanations for how climate models are constructed, why they are uncertain, and what level of confidence we should place in them. It presents current results and the key uncertainties concerning them. Uncertainty is not a weakness but understanding uncertainty is a strength and a key part of using any model, including climate models. Case studies of how climate model output has been used and how it might be used in the future are provided. The ultimate goal of this book is to promote a better understanding of the structure and uncertainties of climate models among users, including scientists, engineers and policymakers.

Habitats and Biota of the Gulf of Mexico: Before the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Volume 1: Water Quality, Sediments, Sediment Contaminants, Oil and Gas Seeps, Coastal Habitats, Offshore Plankton and Benthos, and Shellfish

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ISBN: 9781493934454 9781493934478 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 868 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3447-8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-11 14:37:00
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The Gulf of Mexico is an open and dynamic marine ecosystem rich in natural resources but heavily impacted by human activities, including agricultural, industrial, commercial and coastal development. The Gulf of Mexico has been continuously exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons for millions of years from natural oil and gas seeps on the sea floor, and more recently from oil drilling and production activities located in the water near and far from shore. Major accidental oil spills in the Gulf are infrequent; two of the most significant include the Ixtoc I blowout in the Bay of Campeche in 1979 and the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in 2010. Unfortunately, baseline assessments of the status of habitats and biota in the Gulf of Mexico before these spills either were not available, or the data had not been systematically compiled in a way that would help scientists assess the potential short-term and long-term effects of such events.This 2-volume series compiles and summarizes thousands of data sets showing the status of habitats and biota in the Gulf of Mexico before the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Volume 1 covers: water and sediment quality and contaminants in the Gulf; natural oil and gas seeps in the Gulf of Mexico; coastal habitats, including flora and fauna and coastal geology; offshore benthos and plankton, with an analysis of current knowledge on energy capture and energy flows in the Gulf; and shellfish and finfish resources that provide the basis for commercial and recreational fisheries.

Habitats and Biota of the Gulf of Mexico: Before the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Volume 2: Fish Resources, Fisheries, Sea Turtles, Avian Resources, Marine Mammals, Diseases and Mortalities

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ISBN: 9781493934546 9781493934560 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 891 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3456-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-11 14:40:46
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The Gulf of Mexico is an open and dynamic marine ecosystem rich in natural resources but heavily impacted by human activities, including agricultural, industrial, commercial and coastal development. The Gulf of Mexico has been continuously exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons for millions of years from natural oil and gas seeps on the sea floor, and more recently from oil drilling and production activities located in the water near and far from shore. Major accidental oil spills in the Gulf are infrequent; two of the most significant include the Ixtoc I blowout in the Bay of Campeche in 1979 and the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in 2010. Unfortunately, baseline assessments of the status of habitats and biota in the Gulf of Mexico before these spills either were not available, or the data had not been systematically compiled in a way that would help scientists assess the potential short-term and long-term effects of such events.This 2-volume series compiles and summarizes thousands of data sets showing the status of habitats and biota in the Gulf of Mexico before the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Volume 2 covers historical data on commercial and recreational fisheries, with an analysis of marketing trends and drivers; ecology, populations and risks to birds, sea turtles and marine mammals in the Gulf; and diseases and mortalities of fish and other animals that inhabit the Gulf of Mexico.

Dynamics of Long-Life Assets: From Technology Adaptation to Upgrading the Business Model

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319454382 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45438-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-19 16:26:48
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The editors present essential methods and tools to support a holistic approach to the challenge of system upgrades and innovation in the context of high-value products and services. The approach presented here is based on three main pillars: an adaptation mechanism based on a broad understanding of system dependencies; efficient use of system knowledge through involvement of actors throughout the process; and technological solutions to enable efficient actor communication and information handling.The book provides readers with a better understanding of the factors that influence decisions, and put forward solutions to facilitate the rapid adaptation to changes in the business environment and customer needs through intelligent upgrade interventions. Further, it examines a number of sample cases from various contexts including car manufacturing, utilities, shipping and the furniture industry. The book offers a valuable resource for both academics and practitioners interested in the upgrading of capital-intensive products and services.

North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment

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Book Series: Regional Climate Studies ISSN: 1862-0248 ISBN: 9783319397436 9783319397450 Year: Pages: 528 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-39745-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Business and Management --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Meteorology and Climatology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-14 10:06:08
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This book offers an up-to-date review of our current understanding of climate change in the North Sea and adjacent areas, as well as its impact on ecosystems and socio-economic sectors. It provides a detailed assessment of climate change based on published scientific work compiled by independent international experts from climate-related disciplines such as oceanography, atmospheric sciences, marine and terrestrial ecology, using a regional evaluation and review process similar to that of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It provides a comprehensive overview of all aspects of our changing climate, discussing a wide range of topics including past, current and future climate change, and climate-related changes in marine, terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. It also explores the impact of climate change on socio-economic sectors such as fisheries, agriculture, coastal zone management, coastal protection, urban climate, recreation/tourism, offshore activities/energy, and air pollution.

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