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60 Years of CERN Experiments and Discoveries

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Book Series: Advanced Series on Directions in High Energy Physics ISSN: 17931339 ISBN: 9789814644150 Year: Volume: 23 Pages: 452 DOI: 10.1142/9441 Language: English
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-30 02:08:40
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The book is a compilation of the most important experimental results achieved during the past 60 years at CERN - from the mid-1950s to the latest discovery of the Higgs particle. Covering the results from the early accelerators at CERN to those most recent at the LHC, the contents provide an excellent review of the achievements of this outstanding laboratory. Not only presented is the impressive scientific progress achieved during the past six decades, but also demonstrated is the special way in which successful international collaboration exists at CERN.Contents:Foreword (R-D Heuer)Preface (L Di Lella and H Schopper)The Discovery of the Higgs Boson at the LHC (P Jenni and T S Virdee)Precision Physics with Heavy-Flavoured Hadrons (P Koppenburg and V Vagnoni)Toward the Limits of Matter: Ultra-relativistic Nuclear Collisions at CERN (J Schukraft and R Stock)The Measurement of the Number of Light Neutrino Species at LEP (S Mele)Precision Experiments at LEP (W de Boer)The Discovery of the W and Z Particles (L Di Lella and C Rubbia)The Discovery of Weak Neutral Currents (D Haidt)Highlights from High Energy Neutrino Experiments at CERN (W-D Schlatter)The Discovery of Direct CP Violation (L Iconomidou-Fayard and D Fournier)Measurements of Discrete Symmetries in the Neutral Kaon System with the CPLEAR (PS195) Experiment (T Ruf)An ISR Discovery: The Rise of the Proton–Proton Cross-Section (U Amaldi)Deep Inelastic Scattering with the SPS Muon Beam (G K Mallot and R Voss)Revealing Partons in Hadrons: From the ISR to the SPS Collider (P Darriulat and L Di Lella)Properties of Antiprotons and Antihydrogen, and the Study of Exotic Atoms (M Doser)Muon g–2 and Tests of Relativity (F J M Farley)The Discoveries of Rare Pion Decays at the CERN Synchrocyclotron (G Fidecaro)Highlights at ISOLDE (K Blaum, M J G Borge, B Jonson and P Van Duppen)Readership: Graduate students and researchers in elementary particle physics, and historians of science.

Polarization Phenomena in Physics:Applications to Nuclear Reactions

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ISBN: 9789813230897 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.1142/10731 Language: English
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-02 05:44:00
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This book allows the reader to understand the fundamentals of polarization phenomena in a general spin system, showing the polarizations to be indispensable information source of spin-dependent interactions. Particularly, the book describes polarization phenomena in nuclear scattering and reactions in detail, and explains how they provide information concerning spin-dependent interactions between the related particles. The concepts of polarization observables are explained, explicitly in the scattering of protons, deuterons and 7Li nuclei. In looking at deuteron and 7Li scattering, interactions induced by the virtual excitation of projectiles are examined in detail. Resonance reactions are investigated, focusing attention on the polarization of observables, which suggests that polarization phenomena can be used to determine the spin parity of the resonance. It is noted that in few-nucleon systems, the discrepancy between the values of polarization observables based on theoretical models and the corresponding values obtained through experimental data, is an important problem to be solved in the future. Solving this problem should provide new knowledge concerning the nuclear forces between nucleons.The author has chosen open-access publishing for this book to allow any interested person to study this branch of nuclear physics.

Technology Meets Research:60 Years of CERN Technology: Selected Highlights

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Book Series: Advanced Series on Directions in High Energy Physics ISBN: 9789814749145 Year: Pages: 484 DOI: 10.1142/9921 Language: English
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-25 05:19:09
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"Big" science and advanced technology are known to cross-fertilize. This book emphasizes the interplay between particle physics and technology at CERN that has led to breakthroughs in both research and technology over the laboratory's first 60 years. The innovations, often the work of individuals or by small teams, are illustrated with highlights describing selected technologies from the domains of accelerators and detectors. The book also presents the framework and conditions prevailing at CERN that enabled spectacular advances in technology and contributed to propel the European organization into the league of leading research laboratories in the world.While the book is specifically aimed at providing information for the technically interested general public, more expert readers may also appreciate the broad variety of subjects presented. Ample references are given for those who wish to further explore a given topic.

Science with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

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ISBN: 9789813270091 Year: Pages: 364 DOI: 10.1142/10986 Language: English
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 03:35:14
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This book summarizes the science to be carried out by the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array, a major ground-based gamma-ray observatory that will be constructed over the next six to eight years. The major scientific themes, as well as core program of key science projects, have been developed by the CTA Consortium, a collaboration of scientists from many institutions worldwide.CTA will be the major facility in high-energy and very high-energy photon astronomy over the next decade and beyond. CTA will have capabilities well beyond past and present observatories. Thus, CTA's science program is expected to be rich and broad and will complement other major multiwavelength and multimessenger facilities. This book is intended to be the primary resource for the science case for CTA and it thus will be of great interest to the broader physics and astronomy communities. The electronic version (e-book) is available in open access.

ATLAS:A 25-Year Insider Story of the LHC Experiment

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ISBN: 9789813271807 Year: Pages: 372 DOI: 10.1142/11030 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-11 06:00:45
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This book is written by the ATLAS Collaboration at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC), to document and reflect on its more than 25 years of history. It covers all aspects of this global science project at the forefront of particle physics. The historical part recalls first the early stages of discussions in the community leading to the formation of the collaboration in 1992. In a unique approach, the second part documents the evolution from early detector concepts to the final instrument, covering the technical, financial and human aspects. This includes the phases of construction of detector components in the various institutes around the world as well as their installation and commissioning in the underground cavern at CERN.An important part is devoted to the operation of the whole experiment. The book highlights the capabilities and physics accomplishments so far, including the Higgs boson discovery (jointly announced with CMS). It features the various aspects of a broad spectrum of activities needed to arrive at the physics results. The book includes also an outlook to the detector upgrade activities preparing the experiment for the high-luminosity LHC phase of the next decades. Last but not least, it reveals the human aspects of the large ATLAS community working together pursuing common physics goals.The book is aimed at a broad readership with interest in large science projects and their history, as well as in the human endeavour of a worldwide collaboration.

Biological Information:New Perspectives

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9789814508728 Year: Pages: 584 DOI: 10.1142/8818 Language: English
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 03:49:23
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In the spring of 2011, a diverse group of scientists gathered at Cornell University to discuss their research into the nature and origin of biological information. This symposium brought together experts in information theory, computer science, numerical simulation, thermodynamics, evolutionary theory, whole organism biology, developmental biology, molecular biology, genetics, physics, biophysics, mathematics, and linguistics. This volume presents new research by those invited to speak at the conference.The contributors to this volume use their wide-ranging expertise in the area of biological information to bring fresh insights into the many explanatory difficulties associated with biological information. These authors raise major challenges to the conventional scientific wisdom, which attempts to explain all biological information exclusively in terms of the standard mutation/selection paradigm.Several clear themes emerged from these research papers: 1) Information is indispensable to our understanding of what life is; 2) Biological information is more than the material structures that embody it; 3) Conventional chemical and evolutionary mechanisms seem insufficient to fully explain the labyrinth of information that is life. By exploring new perspectives on biological information, this volume seeks to expand, encourage, and enrich research into the nature and origin of biological information.Contents:Session One — Information Theory & Biology: Introductory Comments (Robert J Marks II):Biological Information — What is It? (Werner Gitt, Robert Compton and Jorge Fernandez)A General Theory of Information Cost Incurred by Successful Search (William A Dembski, Winston Ewert and Robert J Marks II)Pragmatic Information (John W Oller, Jr)Limits of Chaos and Progress in Evolutionary Dynamics (William F Basener)Tierra: The Character of Adaptation (Winston Ewert, William A Dembski and Robert J Marks II)Multiple Overlapping Genetic Codes Profoundly Reduce the Probability of Beneficial Mutation (George Montañez, Robert J Marks II, Jorge Fernandez and John C Sanford)Entropy, Evolution and Open Systems (Granville Sewell)Information and Thermodynamics in Living Systems (Andy C McIntosh)Session Two — Biological Information and Genetic Theory: Introductory Comments (John C Sanford):Not Junk After All: Non-Protein-Coding DNA Carries Extensive Biological Information (Jonathan Wells)Can Purifying Natural Selection Preserve Biological Information? (Paul Gibson, John R Baumgardner, Wesley H Brewer and John C Sanford)Selection Threshold Severely Constrains Capture of Beneficial Mutations (John C Sanford, John R Baumgardner and Wesley H Brewer)Using Numerical Simulation to Test the “Mutation-Count” Hypothesis (Wesley H Brewer, John R Baumgardner and John C Sanford)Can Synergistic Epistasis Halt Mutation Accumulation? Results from Numerical Simulation (John R Baumgardner, Wesley H Brewer and John C Sanford)Computational Evolution Experiments Reveal a Net Loss of Genetic Information Despite Selection (Chase W Nelson and John C Sanford)Information Loss: Potential for Accelerating Natural Genetic Attenuation of RNA Viruses (Wesley H Brewer, Franzine D Smith and John C Sanford)DNA.EXE: A Sequence Comparison between the Human Genome and Computer Code (Josiah Seaman)Biocybernetics and Biosemiosis (Donald Johnson)Session Three — Theoretical Molecular Biology: Introductory Comments (Michael J Behe):An Ode to the Code: Evidence for Fine-Tuning in the Standard Codon Table (Jed C Macosko and Amanda M Smelser)A New Model of Intracellular Communication Based on Coherent, High-Frequency Vibrations in Biomolecules (L Dent)Getting There First: An Evolutionary Rate Advantage for Adaptive Loss-of-Function Mutations (Michael J Behe)The Membrane Code: A Carrier of Essential Biological Information That is Not Specified by DNA and is Inherited Apart from It (Jonathan Wells)Explaining Metabolic Innovation: Neo-Darwinism Versus Design (Douglas D Axe and Ann K Gauger)Session Four — Biological Information and Self-Organizational Complexity Theory: Introductory Comments (Bruce L Gordon):Evolution Beyond Entailing Law: The Roles of Embodied Information and Self Organization (Stuart Kauffman)Towards a General Biology: Emergence of Life and Information from the Perspective of Complex Systems Dynamics (Bruce H Weber)Readership: Academics, researchers, postgraduates and advanced undergraduates in bioinformatics. Biologists, mathematicians/statisticians, physicists and computer scientists.

The Fourteenth Marcel Grossmann Meeting:On Recent Developments in Theoretical and Experimental General Relativity, Astrophysics, and Relativistic Field Theories (In 4 Volumes)

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ISBN: 9789813226609 Year: Pages: 1084 DOI: 10.1142/10614 Language: English
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-20 08:45:58
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The four volumes of the proceedings of MG14 give a broad view of all aspects of gravitational physics and astrophysics, from mathematical issues to recent observations and experiments. The scientific program of the meeting included 35 morning plenary talks over 6 days, 6 evening popular talks and 100 parallel sessions on 84 topics over 4 afternoons.Volume A contains plenary and review talks ranging from the mathematical foundations of classical and quantum gravitational theories including recent developments in string theory, to precision tests of general relativity including progress towards the detection of gravitational waves, and from supernova cosmology to relativistic astrophysics, including topics such as gamma ray bursts, black hole physics both in our galaxy and in active galactic nuclei in other galaxies, and neutron star, pulsar and white dwarf astrophysics.The remaining volumes include parallel sessions which touch on dark matter, neutrinos, X-ray sources, astrophysical black holes, neutron stars, white dwarfs, binary systems, radiative transfer, accretion disks, quasars, gamma ray bursts, supernovas, alternative gravitational theories, perturbations of collapsed objects, analog models, black hole thermodynamics, numerical relativity, gravitational lensing, large scale structure, observational cosmology, early universe models and cosmic microwave background anisotropies, inhomogeneous cosmology, inflation, global structure, singularities, chaos, Einstein-Maxwell systems, wormholes, exact solutions of Einstein's equations, gravitational waves, gravitational wave detectors and data analysis, precision gravitational measurements, quantum gravity and loop quantum gravity, quantum cosmology, strings and branes, self-gravitating systems, gamma ray astronomy, cosmic rays and the history of general relativity.

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