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Pinochet s'en va...

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ISBN: 9782907163798 9782371540279 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Éditions de l’IHEAL
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-04 11:17:16
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Le Chili qui est apparu au travers de l'arrestation du général Pinochet, le 16 octobre 1998, à Londres, n'est pas un pays simple. Ce n'est pas pour autant un pays incompréhensible. Il est le résultat d'une période particulière : celle de la transition à la démocratie, commencée en 1988, et qui s'achève en mars 1994. L'étude de la période de transition à la démocratie revêt une importance singulière en ceci qu'elle impose de comprendre la nature du régime qui la précède, le régime militaire, ...

Le bagne de Brest

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ISBN: 9782868474841 9782753524149 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Presses universitaires de Rennes
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-22 17:18:59
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Née de la volonté royale de dissoudre le trop coûteux corps des Galères, l'ordonnance de 1748 trouve l'une de ses premières applications concrètes avec l'arrivée à Brest d'un petit millier de galériens, escortés de quelques surveillants bien au fait de la réglementation des chiourmes. C'est de cette installation que naît en 1749 le bagne de Brest. Plus que le XIXe siècle, période de stabilisation, la deuxième moitié du XVIIIe siècle, qui nous intéresse ici, marque l'émergence de cette nouvell...

Die Modernisierung politischer Systeme

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ISBN: 9783205992028 Year: Pages: 730 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_472490 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3152
Added to DOAB on : 2014-04-11 23:26:32
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Part one of the book discusses political systems of Developing Countries. It suggests that the concept of neopatrimonialism is becoming more and more important. Neopatrimonial systems are characterized by three components: Personal rule, political clientelism and endemic corruption. The neopatrimonial state is essentially a weak state, where the production of public goods is very low and the road to the failure of the state open. For the transformation or improvement of a neopatrimonial system a developmental state is necessary.Part two tries to give a theory of the state. The state is understood as a set of complex institutions. Historical institutionalism seems therefore to be the correct approach. Four institutional complexes are needed for consolidated modern statehood: The military for the security of the state – the military revolution can be regarded as the most important factor in explaining the origin of the state. Territorial segmentation is at the same time the building principle for the international political system. As the professionalism of the military increases, a new institutional complex becomes necessary for the security of the citizens: the police, and the police is the institution for the monopoly of legitimate violence.The second institutional complex is taxation and the ordering of state finances (the budget). Taxes are historically a consequence of standing armies. Today taxation is an important dimension of state capabilities.The third complex is the bureaucracy – necessary for the production of decisions based on general rules. An effective bureaucracy is a precondition for the development of the welfare state. Corruption its main problem.The forth complex is placed at the top of the state – governing all the other institutions. It is essentially the government in combination with the parliament as a law-making institution.Part three tries to explain the process of democratization. Democracy needs three subsystems: the public sphere as the interaction of mass media and discourses of the citizens. A party system, where the parties are based on political ideologies. And a parliament, as the center of a representative government. Responsiveness can be explained as a consequence of general free elections.

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