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Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus as a Case Study: Using a Precautionary Risk Management Approach for Emerging Blood-Borne Pathogens in Canada (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9809533075827 Year: DOI: 10.5772/38572 Language: English
Publisher: Intech Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 228064
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:58
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In October 2009 it was reported that 68 of 101 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in the United States, when tested, were infected with a novel gamma retrovirus, xenotropic

murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) (Lombardi et al., 2009). XMRV is a recently

discovered human gammaretrovirus first described in prostate cancers that shares

significant homology with murine leukemia virus (MLV) (Ursiman et al., 2006). It is known

that XMRV can cause leukemias and sarcomas in several rodent, feline, and primate species

but has not been shown to cause disease in humans. XMRV was detectable in the peripheral

blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma of individuals diagnosed with CFS

(Lombardi et al., 2009). After this report was published there was a great deal of uncertainty

surrounding this emergent virus and its involvement in the etiology of CFS. The uncertainty

was, in part, due to CFS being a complex, poorly understood multi-system disorder with

different disease criteria used for its diagnosis. CFS, also known as Myalgic

Encephalomyelitis (ME), is a debilitating disease of unknown origin that is estimated to

affect 17 million people worldwide. The initial report connecting XMRV to prostate cancers

and CFS garnered significant media and scientific interest since it provided a potential



Susie ElSaadany2**, Tamer Oraby1

*

Daniel Krewski1, 4 and Peter R. Ganz5

1McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, Institute of Population Health, University of

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

2Blood Safety Surveillance and Health Care Acquired Infections Division, Centre for Communicable Diseases and

Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

3Aspinall and Associates, Cleveland House, High Street, and Earth Sciences, Bristol University, Bristol, United

Kingdom

4Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa,

Ontario, Canada

5Health Canada, Director’s Office, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

** Corresponding Author

, Marian Laderoute2

, Jun Wu2

, Willy Aspinall3

,

www.intechopen.com

32 The Continuum of Health Risk Assessments

explanation for the disease but also an avenue for possible therapeutic treatments since

XMRV is known to be susceptible to some anti-retroviral drugs (Cohen, 2011).

Keywords

case study --- virus

Virgil, Aeneid, 4.1-299. Latin Text, Study Questions, Commentary and Interpretative Essays

Author:
Book Series: Classics Textbooks ISSN: 20542437 20542445 ISBN: 9781909254169 Year: Pages: 319 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0023 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-28 15:10:45
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Love and tragedy dominate book four of Virgil’s most powerful work, building on the violent emotions invoked by the storms, battles, warring gods, and monster-plagued wanderings of the epic’s opening.Destined to be the founder of Roman culture, Aeneas, nudged by the gods, decides to leave his beloved Dido, causing her suicide in pursuit of his historical destiny. A dark plot, in which erotic passion culminates in sex, and sex leads to tragedy and death in the human realm, unfolds within the larger horizon of a supernatural sphere, dominated by power-conscious divinities. Dido is Aeneas’ most significant other, and in their encounter Virgil explores timeless themes of love and loyalty, fate and fortune, the justice of the gods, imperial ambition and its victims, and ethnic differences.This course book offers a portion of the original Latin text, study questions, a commentary, and interpretative essays. Designed to stretch and stimulate readers, Ingo Gildenhard’s incisive commentary will be of particular interest to students of Latin at both A2 and undergraduate level. It extends beyond detailed linguistic analysis to encourage critical engagement with Virgil’s poetry and discussion of the most recent scholarly thought.

Virgil, Aeneid, 4.1–299

Author:
Book Series: Classics Textbooks ISBN: 9781909254176 Year: Pages: 319 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0023 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: History --- Linguistics --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-04 11:02:05
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Love and tragedy dominate book four of Virgil’s most powerful work, building on the violent emotions invoked by the storms, battles, warring gods, and monster-plagued wanderings of the epic’s opening. Destined to be the founder of Roman culture, Aeneas, nudged by the gods, decides to leave his beloved Dido, causing her suicide in pursuit of his historical destiny. A dark plot, in which erotic passion culminates in sex, and sex leads to tragedy and death in the human realm, unfolds within the larger horizon of a supernatural sphere, dominated by power-conscious divinities. Dido is Aeneas’ most significant other, and in their encounter Virgil explores timeless themes of love and loyalty, fate and fortune, the justice of the gods, imperial ambition and its victims, and ethnic differences. This course book offers a portion of the original Latin text, study questions, a commentary, and interpretative essays. Designed to stretch and stimulate readers, Ingo Gildenhard’s incisive commentary will be of particular interest to students of Latin at both A2 and undergraduate level. It extends beyond detailed linguistic analysis to encourage critical engagement with Virgil’s poetry and discussion of the most recent scholarly thought.

Modelling the Human Cardiac Fluid Mechanics. 4th ed

Author:
ISBN: 9783866447943 Year: Pages: 98 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000016552 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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With the Karlsruhe Heart Model (KaHMo) we aim to share our vision of integrated computational simulation across multiple disciplines of cardiovascular research, and emphasis yet again the importance of Modelling the Human Cardiac Fluid Mechanics within the framework of the international STICH study. The focus of this work is on integrated cardiovascular fluid mechanics, and the potential benefits to future cardiovascular research and the wider bio-medical community.

Bridging Transcultural Divides: Asian Languages and Cultures in Global Higher Education

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781922064318 Year: Pages: 286 DOI: 10.1017/9781922064318 Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2012-09-27 02:30:54
License: University of Adelaide Press

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This volume presents the diverse approaches and achievements of scholars of Asian cultures and languages in today’s global academy. Recent vast increases in student numbers and ethnic diversity have created pressing challenges for a higher education which engages with contemporary concerns for Asian societies as well as for Asian students involved in Western education. This collection of scholarly analyses demonstrates the centrality and significance of Asian Studies and languages for these globalising academic communities. Significantly, it demands a rethinking of traditional ‘intercultural’ education. In so doing, it brings empirical knowledge as well as multicultural interpretation and multilingual expertise to throw new light on the challenges in higher education today, and to open up new understandings of the demands of the future. - Professor John Makeham

Head, Department of Chinese Studies, The Australian National University

Behind the Scenes: The politics of planning Adelaide

Author:
ISBN: 9781922064417 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.1017/9781922064417 Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2012-11-19 03:53:20
License: University of Adelaide Press

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Behind the Scenes examines planning in the City of Adelaide from 1972 until 1993 within the historical framework of City/State relations from 1836 when the Province of South Australia was founded. During this 21-year period, the City had its own planning and development control legislation separate from the rest of the State. Dr Llewellyn-Smith examines why this situation came about, why it continued for this particular period and why it ceased in 1993 when the separate legislation was repealed and the City became part of the State system under the new Development Act 1993.

Behind the Scenes includes original interviews with many of the key individuals in the City and State who played influential roles during this period. Dr Llewellyn-Smith himself was the City Planner from 1974 until 1981 and then the Town Clerk/Chief Executive Officer of the Adelaide City Council from 1982 until 1993: this book, then, is both a work of scholarship and an insider’s account.

New Directions in Dental Anthropology: Paradigms, methodologies and outcomes

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780987171870 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.1017/9780987171870 Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Anthropology
Added to DOAB on : 2012-05-14 07:35:12
License: University of Adelaide Press

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This book contains papers arising from a symposium held during a combined meeting of The International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (IUAES), The Australian Anthropological Society (AAS) and The Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa New Zealand at the University of Western Australia from July 5-8th, 2011. It follows on from a recently published Special Issue Supplement of Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 54, December 2009 that contains papers from an International Workshop on Oral Growth and Development held in Liverpool in 2007 and edited by Professor Alan Brook. Together, these two publications provide a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art approaches to study dental development and variation, and open up opportunities for future collaborative research initiatives, a key aim of the International Collaborating Network in Oro-facial Genetics and Development that was founded in Liverpool in 2007.

The aim of the symposium held at The University of Western Australia in 2011 was to emphasise some of the powerful new strategies offered by the science of dental anthropology to elucidate the historical lineage of human groups and also to reconstruct environmental factors that have acted on the teeth by analysing dental morphological features. In recent years, migration, as well as increases and decreases in the size of different human populations, have been evident as a result of globalisation. Dental features are also changing associated with changes in nutritional status, different economic or social circumstances, and intermarriage between peoples. Dental anthropological studies have explored these changes with the use of advanced techniques and refined methodologies. New paradigms are also evolving in the field of dental anthropology.

When considered together with the recent special issue of Archives of Oral Biology that highlighted the importance of research approaches focused at both the molecular and phenotypic levels, it is clear that we have now reached a very exciting stage in our ability to address key questions and issues about the normal and abnormal development of the dentition, as well as the diseases that commonly affect our teeth and gums.

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