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An Experimental Study on Adhesive or Anti-adhesive, Bio-inspired Experimental Nanomaterials

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ISBN: 9788376560823 9783110399295 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.2478/9788376560823 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-05 13:38:27
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Adhesive abilities of insects, spiders and reptiles have inspired researchers for a long time. All these organisms show outstanding performance, particularly for force, adhesion and climbing abilities, relative to their size and weight. Scientists have focused on the gecko’s adhesive paw system and climbing abilities. Its adhesion mechanism has been an important topic of research for nearly 150 years. However, certain phenomena of geckos are still not fully understood and represent today the main challenge in several scientific discussions that aim to better understand their adhesive ability. The manuscript deals with the influence of surface roughness on the gecko’s adhesion on the inverted surface of Poly(methyl meth-acrylate) (PMMA) and glass, of PMMA with different surface roughness, on the gecko’s maximum normal adhesive force.In general, the adhesive structure and mechanism of an animal could be connected to the micro-structured roughness of natural substrata (e.g. plant surfaces) in the natural environment.This manuscript focuses on the nanometer scale, which is involved in everything from gecko spatulae to the waxy nanotubules of the lotus leaf, to the fibroin protein materials that constitute spider silks.In general, spider silks display superior mechanical properties, but only in the last few decades, researchers investigated various types of silks and evaluated their very different mechanical properties. The dragline and the flag silks (or radial and circumferential) of orb weaving spiders have been characterized in scientific literature while, to our knowledge, few studies have been conducted on bundles, which connect the cocoons of Meta menardi to the ceiling of caves.

Homogenization of the Linear and Non-linear Mechanical Behavior of Polycrystals

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Kontinuumsmechanik im Maschinenbau / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Technische Mechanik - Bereich Kontinuumsmechanik ISSN: 2192693X ISBN: 9783866449718 Year: Volume: 4 Pages: IX, 192 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000032289 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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This work is dedicated to the numerically efficient simulation of the material response of polycrystalline aggregates. Therefore, crystal plasticity is combined with a new non-linear homogenization scheme, which is based on piecewise constant stress polarizations with respect to a homogeneous reference medium and corresponds to a generalization of the Hashin-Shtrikman scheme. This mean field approach accounts for the one- and two-point statistics of the microstructure.

Investigation of deformation mechanisms in nanocrystalline metals and alloys by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783866449626 Year: Volume: 13 Pages: X, 223 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000031997 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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In this work, different nanocrystalline metals and alloys were investigated by a synchrotron-based in situ XRD mechanical testing technique in order to investigate the dominant deformation mechanisms. All tested samples show a succession and coexistence of several mechanisms, regardless of grain size, loading condition, or sample geometry. However, the relative shares of the individual mechanisms strongly vary and depend on parameters such as grain size, sample purity, and alloy composition.

Advances in Biomaterials Science and Biomedical Applications

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ISBN: 9789535110514 Year: Pages: 570 DOI: 10.5772/56420 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:09

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This contribution book is a collection of reviews and original articles from eminent experts working in the multi- and interdisciplinary arena of biomaterials, ranging from their design to novel uses. From their personal experience, the readers can obtain a stimulating foresight on the potentialities of different synthetic and engineered biomaterials. 21 chapters have been organized to illustrate different aspects of biomaterials science. From advanced means for the characterization and toxicological assessment of new materials, through ""classical"" applications in nanotechnology and tissue engineering, toward novel specific uses of these products, the volume wishes to give readers a view of the wide range of disciplines and methodologies that have been exploited to develop biomaterials with the physical and biological features needed for specific clinical and medical applications.

Phase-field modeling of multi-domain evolution in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys and of polycrystalline thin film growth

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731500094 Year: Volume: 19 Pages: XVIII, 254 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000034246 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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The phase-field method is a powerful tool in computer-aided materials science as it allows for the analysis of the time-spatial evolution of microstructures on the mesoscale. A multi-phase-field model is adopted to run numerical simulations in two different areas of scientific interest: Polycrystalline thin films growth and the ferromagnetic shape memory effect. FFT-techniques, norm conservative integration and RVE-methods are necessary to make the coupled problems numerically feasible.

Ionic Liquids - New Aspects for the Future

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ISBN: 9789535109372 9789535142560 Year: Pages: 708 DOI: 10.5772/45605 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Concerns with ionic liquids are one of the most interesting and rapidly developing areas in modern physical chemistry, materials science, technologies, and engineering. Increasing attention has also been paid to the use of ionic liquids in the research fields of biological aspects and natural resources. This book provides the forum for dissemination and exchange of up-to-date scientific information on theoretical, generic, and applied areas of ionic liquids. It, therefore, tends to review recent progresses in ionic liquid research on fundamental properties, solvents and catalysts in organic reactions, biological applications, providing energies and fuels, biomass conversions, functional materials, and other applications. I trust that this book will provide an active source of information for research in ionic liquid science and engineering.

Environmental Democracy at the Global Level: Rights and Duties for a New Citizenship

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ISBN: 9788376560144 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.2478/9788376560144 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-11-18 14:14:57
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Giulia Parola’s Environmental Democracy at the Global Level: Rights and Duties for a New Citizenship can be seen as a manifesto that is both traditional and revolutionary at the same time. It calls for the construction of a new civilisation centred on the environment, while drawing on the traditional notions of democratic government. It adopts an approach that is focused on the power of individuals rather than governments, as ways to protect and improve the environment. It proposes that environmental rights and ecological duties are self-evident and inalienable, and should be treated as the cornerstones of a new democracy. Parola’s book is a thought provoking and intriguing work that will be of interest to scholars of environmental studies as well as to legal practitioners and non-specialists.Giulia Parola has studied Environmental Law at the University of Torino, at the University of René Descartes in Paris, (where she obtained PhD in Public Law) and at the University of Iceland ( LLM in Natural Resources Law and International Environmental Law).In 2011, she was appointed by the University of Laval (Canada, Quebec) as a researcher and a lecturer in Environmental Law.

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