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Los desequilibrios territoriales en Colombia

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ISBN: 9789587721850 9789587722543 Year: Language: Spanish
Publisher: Universidad Externado de Colombia
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-06 11:51:12
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Colombia es un país de regiones metropolitanas. Si a cada región que es habitada por una población le es inmanente un gobierno, las formas de ocupación territorial por la población y las actividades humanas deberían contar con la forma de gobierno más pertinente. Por tanto, un nuevo modelo territorial de Estado tendrá que organizarse en torno a gobiernos metropolitanos cuyas funciones de alcance supralocal se construirían con base en las que ya poseen las jurisdicciones involucradas en el pol...

Kansankirkko ristipaineessa

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Book Series: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran Toimituksia ISBN: 9789522228741 9789522229861 9789522225443 Year: Pages: 416 DOI: 10.21435/skst.1407 Language: Finnish
Publisher: Finnish Literature Society / SKS Grant: Kirjastokonsortio Aleksandria and SKS
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-09 11:01:56
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As the highest internal decision-making body within the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the General Synod began, from 1876, congregating in Turku every tenth, and then eventually, every fifth year. By the 1960s, this decision-making system was becoming unsatisfactory. An extensive project to answer to the general ideals of the era and to strengthen the efficiency and democracy of the Church administration was initiated. The reformed General Synod got underway in 1974 with biannual gatherings. It was a body consisting of 108 members, including lay representatives, clergymen and the bishops. The General Synod retained its right to decide on ecclesiastical books and continued to hold the sole right to make proposals regarding the Church Act. A new task was to decide on the budget of the entire Church organisation and to steer the activities of the Church as a whole. Additionally, the General Synod received the general authority to handle any issues related to faith and doctrine, such as ecumenical issues. The book Kansankirkko ristipaineessa (A national folk church under conflicting pressures) takes a close look at the General Synod representatives during the years 1974–2011 and clarifies who the members of the Synod were, how they were elected and what they achieved. The study examines which of these persons held the most power, and what types of coalitions stood out within the work of the General Synod. In addition, the book aims to provide a general overall picture of the General Synod in relation to the Church, economic life, legislation, theological dialogue and the media. The study examines how well the intentions that drove the reform of the General Synod were realised and whether the General Synod was actually progressing as slowly or as briskly as expressed by different observers at different times. Discussions surrounding female ordination, sexual ethics and ecclesiastical books indicate the position of the General Synod within an increasingly diversified society. During the first decade of the 2000s, the General Synod experienced a similar revolution in terms of values as it had when preparing the reform of the Synod around the turn of the 1960s and 70s. The Church began to find itself once again in a missionary situation.

Ways to improve tumor uptake and penetration of drugs into solid tumors

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193509 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-350-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The main scope of this topic is to give an update on pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches to enhance uptake and penetration of cancer drugs into tumors. Inadequate accumulation of drugs in tumors has emerged over the last decade as one of the main problems underlying therapeutic failure and drug resistance in the treatment of cancer. Insufficient drug uptake and penetration is causally related to the abnormal tumor architecture. Thus, poor vascularization, increased resistance to blood flow and impaired blood supply represent a first obstacle to the delivery of antitumor drugs to tumor tissue. Decreased or even inverted transvascular pressure gradients compromise convective delivery of drugs. Eventually, an abnormal extracellular matrix offers increased frictional resistance to tumor drug penetration. Abnormal tumor architecture also changes the biology of tumor cells, which contributes to drug resistance through several different mechanisms. The variability in vessel location and structure can make many areas of the tumor hypoxic, which causes the tumor cells to become quiescent and thereby resistant to many antitumor drugs. In addition, the abnormally long distance of part of the tumor cell population from blood vessels provides a challenge to delivering cancer drugs to these cells. We have recently proposed additional mechanisms of tumor drug resistance, which are also related to abnormal tumor architecture. First, increased interstitial fluid pressure can by itself induce drug resistance through the induction of resistance-promoting paracrine factors. Second, the interaction of drug molecules with vessel- proximal tumor cell layers may also induce the release of these factors, which can spread throughout the cancer, and induce drug resistance in tumor cells distant from blood vessels. As can be seen, abnormal tumor architecture, inadequate drug accumulation and tumor drug resistance are tightly linked phenomena, suggesting the need to normalize the tumor architecture, including blood vessels, and/or increase the accumulation of cancer drugs in tumors in order to increase therapeutic effects. Indeed, several classes of drugs (that we refer to as promoter drugs) have been described, that promote tumor uptake and penetration of antitumor drugs, including those that are vasoactive, modify the barrier function of tumor vessels, debulk tumor cells, and overcome intercellular and stromal barriers. In addition, also non-pharmacologic approaches have been described that enhance tumor accumulation of effector drugs (e.g. convection-enhanced delivery, hyperthermia, etc.). Some drugs that have already received regulatory approval (e.g. the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab) exert antitumor effects at least in part through normalization of the tumor vasculature and enhancement of the accumulation of effector drugs. Other drugs, acting through different mechanisms of action, are now in clinical development (e.g. NGR-TNF in phase II/III studies) and others are about to enter clinical investigation (e.g. JO-1).

Der österreichische Neoabsolutismus als Verfassungs- und Verwaltugsproblem

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ISBN: 9783205795803 Year: Pages: 522 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_513160 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 158
Added to DOAB on : 2014-12-12 11:01:10
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This volume includes the elaborated papers and discussions of a conference held at Würzburg on Austrian ‚Neoabsolutism‘ (1849/51-1860/61). Starting point was the recent criticism of that term to identify the Austrian type of postrevolutionary government and to mark a historical period. The experts assembled at Würzburg focussed their analysis on the various fields of domestic policy in that ambiguous decade and tried to evaluate its importance within the long-term problems of the Hapsburg Monarchy.

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