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Measuring and Promoting Wellbeing

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781925021318 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_477382 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2014-05-22 11:01:11
License: ANU Press

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"Australia continues to be at the forefront of international work on measuring and promoting wellbeing, Ian Castles being a significant contributor over the last forty years as an official and academic. This book combines a selection of Castles’ important work with contemporary research from a range of contributors. The material is in four parts: 1. The role of economics in defining and promoting wellbeing 2. Measuring real income and wellbeing 3. Measuring inequality 4. Climate change and the limits to growth. The issues canvassed are both long-standing and current. Does economic growth contribute to wellbeing? How different is income to wellbeing? How do we measure societal wellbeing and take its distribution into account? The book will be of value to all those looking to informed debate on global challenges such as reducing poverty, sustaining the environment and advancing the quality of life, including politicians, commentators, officials and academics."

Keywords

economics --- society --- growth --- wellbeing --- international

Australia and Latin America

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781925021233 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_502533 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2014-10-14 11:01:21
License: ANU Press

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This is a good time to reflect on opportunities and challenges for Australia in Latin America. Impressive economic growth and opportunities for trade and investment have made Latin America a dynamic area for Australia and the Asia Pacific region. A growing Latin American population, Australia’s attractiveness to Latin American students, a fascination with the cultural vibrancy of the Americas and an awareness of Latin America’s increasingly independent stance in politics and economic diplomacy, have all contributed to raising the region’s profile. This collection of essays provides the first substantial introduction to Australia’s evolving engagement with Latin America, identifying current trends and opportunities, and making suggestions about how relationships in trade, investment, foreign aid, education, culture and the media could be strengthened.

Grain growth behavior and efficient large scale simulations of recrystallization with the phase-field method

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731502807 Year: Volume: 44 Pages: VI, 136 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000043520 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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This book summarizes the found insights of grain growth behavior, of multidimensional decomposition for regular grids to efficiently parallelize computing and how to simulate recrystallization by coupling the finite element method with the phase-field method for microstructure texture analysis. The frame of the book is created by the phase-field method, which is the tool used in this work, to investigate microstructure phenomena.

Mind the gap! Gap junction channels and their importance in pathogenesis

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192380 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-238-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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"Cells live together, but die singly", this sentence wrote the German physiologist Theodor Engelmann in 1875 and although he had no particular knowledge of gap junction channels (their structure was discovered around 100 years later) he described their functions very well: gap junction channels are essential for intercellular communication and crucial for the development of tissue and organs. But besides providing an opportunity for cells to communicate gap junction channels might also prevent intercellular communication by channel closure thereby preserving the surrounding healthy tissue in case of cellular necrosis. According to today’s understanding gap junction channels play an important role during embryonic development, during growth, wound healing and cell differentiation and are also involved in the process of learning. In the past decades most intensive research was done not only to unravel the physiological role of gap junction channels but also to extend our knowledge of the contribution of these channels in pathogenesis. A new frontier emerges in the field "pharmacology of gap junctions" with the aim to control growth, differentiation, or electrical coupling via targeting gap junction channels pharmacologically. As we know today disturbances in gap junction synthesis, assembly and cellular distribution may account for various organic disorders from most different medical fields, such as the Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy, epilepsy, Chagas-disease, Naxos-syndrome, congenital cardiac malformations, arrhythmias, cancer and as a very common disease in industrial countries atherosclerosis. Point mutations in gap junction channels have been found to cause hereditary diseases like the congenital deafness or the Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy but the exact molecular mechanisms of gap junction malfunction from most of the mentioned illnesses are not fully understood. Moreover, in the last few years research has expanded on the role and function of connexin hemichannels and on a relatively new field the pannexins. The purpose of this volume is to give a comprehensive overview of the involvement of gap junction channels, hemichannels and pannexins on pathogenesis of inborn and acquired diseases and on emerging pharmacological strategies to target these channels. We welcome our colleagues to contribute their findings on the influence of gap junctions on pathogenesis and to unravel the secrets of intercellular communication. Take the lid off!

Regulation of immune system cell functions by protein kinase C

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193264 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-326-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of Ser/Thr kinases are encoded by nine distinct but closely related genes, which give rise to more than 12 different protein isoforms via a mechanism of alternative RNA splicing. Most PKC proteins are ubiquitously expressed and participate in a plethora of functions in most cell types. A majority of PKC isoforms is also expressed in cells of the immune system in which they are involved in signal transduction downstream of a range of surface receptors, including the antigen receptors on T and B lymphocytes. PKC proteins are central to signal initiation and propagation, and to the regulation of processes leading to immune cell proliferation, differentiation, homing and survival. As a result, PKC proteins directly impact on the quality and quantity of immune responses and indirectly on the host resistance to pathogens and tendency to develop immune deficiencies and autoimmune diseases. A significant progress was made in recent years in understanding the regulation of PKC enzymes, their mechanism of action and their role in determining immunocyte behavior This volume reviews the most significant contributions made in the field of immune cell regulation by PKC enzymes. Several manuscripts are devoted to the role of distinct PKC isoforms in the regulation of selected immunocyte responses. Additional manuscripts review more general mechanisms of regulation of PKC enzymes, either by post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation or controlled proteolysis, or by interaction with different binding proteins that may alter the conformation, activity and subcellular location of PKC. Both types of mechanisms can introduce conformational changes in the molecule, which may affect its ability to interact with cofactors, ATP, or substrates. This topic will be followed by a discussion on the positive and negative impact of individual PKC isoforms on cell cycle regulation. A second section of this volume concentrates on selected topics relevant to role of the novel PKC isoform, PKC-theta, in T lymphocyte function. PKC-theta plays important and some non-redundant roles in T cell activation and is a key isoform that recruits to the immunological synapse - the surface membrane area in T cells that comes in direct contact with antigen presenting cells. The immunological synapse is formed in T cells within seconds following the engagement of the TCR by a peptide-bound MHC molecule on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. It serves as a platform for receptors, adaptor proteins, and effector molecules, which assemble into multimolecular activation complexes required for signal transduction. The unique ability of PKC-theta to activate the NF-kB, AP-1 and NF-AT transcription factors is well established, and recent studies contributed essential information on the mechanisms involved in the recruitment of PKC-theta to the center of the immunological synapse and the nature of its substrates and the role of their phosphorylated forms in signal transduction. Additional review manuscripts will describe the unique behavior of PKC-theta in regulatory T cells and its role in the regulation of other cell populations, including those of the innate immune response. This volume brings together leading experts from different disciplines that review the most recent discoveries and offer new perspectives on the contributions of PKC isoforms to biochemical processes and signaling events in different immune cell populations and their impact on the overall host immune response.

Low-dose antibiotics: current status and outlook for the future

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193554 Year: Pages: 167 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-355-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Antimicrobial therapy is a key factor in our success against pathogens poised to ravage at risk or infected individuals. However, we are currently at a watershed point as we face a growing crisis of antibiotic resistance among diverse pathogens. One area of intense interest is the impact of the application of antibiotics for uses other than the treatment of patients and the association with such utilization with emerging drug resistance. This Research Topic “Low- dose antibiotics: current status and outlook for the future” in Frontiers in Microbiology: Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy details various aspects of the wide ranging effects of antimicrobial therapy from areas such as the regulation of host responses to modulation of bacterial virulence factors to acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes.

Microstructure evolution in strontium titanate Investigated by means of grain growth simulations and x-ray diffraction contrast tomography experiments

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731502425 Year: Volume: 40 Pages: XIV, 146 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000042175 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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Understanding the physical processes during fabrication and annealing of ceramic materials is a long sought goal among material scientists. Using strontium titanate as a model system for perovskite ceramics, the present work combines advanced non-destructive 3D characterization techniques and computational modeling of microstructure evolution in order to link grain morphology, interface anisotropy and microstructure evolution to macroscopic physical properties .

Paediatric Nutrition

ISBN: 9783906980508 9783906980515 Year: Pages: 348 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:45:51
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Food and nutrition has been central to human culture, philosophy and science since the beginning of civilisation. However the building blocks of food and nutrition, the nutrients, remained unknown until the late 19th century. Over the next 100 years advances in physics, chemistry and physiology led to rapid developments in our knowledge, first with development of an understanding of energy and the macronutrients, followed by the minerals and vitamins. The first vitamins to be explored scientifically were thiamine, vitamin D and C and in 1935 ascorbic acid was synthesised, beginning the 20th century rapid development of knowledge of nutrients[1]. [...]

Finance for Food

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ISBN: 9783642540332 9783642540349 Year: Pages: 295 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-54034-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics --- Manufactures
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-05 12:56:57
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This book reflects the current state of discussion about agricultural and rural finance in developing and transition countries. It provides insight into specific themes, such as commodity value chains, farm banking and risk management in agricultural banking, structured finance, crop insurance, mobile banking and how to increase effectiveness in rural finance. Case studies illustrate various aspects of agricultural and rural finance in developing economies. The book is based on one of the yearly financial Sector Development Symposia held by the KfW Development Bank.

Das konvivialistische Manifest

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Book Series: X-Texte zu Kultur und Gesellschaft ISBN: 9783839428986 9783837628982 9783732828982 Year: Pages: 80 DOI: 10.14361/transcript.9783839428986 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-09 11:02:27
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Global phenomenons like climate change, poverty, terrorism, or financial crises suggest thinking about changed forms of coexistence and perception. Many movements, initiatives, and groups are currently searching for alternative ways. They all share a yearning for a new art of living together (con-vivere). Convivialism means exploring possibilities for people to provide for each other and at the same time take care of nature, albeit without avoiding legitimate conflicts. The globally discussed manifesto by renowned authors clarifies: This can only succeed within a social order that invokes a joint humanity, principles of joint socialization, the principle of individuality, and acceptance of creative opposition.

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