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Natural causes of language: Frames, biases, and cultural transmission

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ISBN: 9783944675503 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_533873 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 240853
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2014-12-02 09:32:17
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What causes a language to be the way it is? Some features are universal, some are inherited, others are borrowed, and yet others are internally innovated. But no matter where a bit of language is from, it will only exist if it has been diffused and kept in circulation through social interaction in the history of a community. This book makes the case that a proper understanding of the ontology of language systems has to be grounded in the causal mechanisms by which linguistic items are socially transmitted, in communicative contexts. A biased transmission model provides a basis for understanding why certain things and not others are likely to develop, spread, and stick in languages. Because bits of language are always parts of systems, we also need to show how it is that items of knowledge and behavior become structured wholes. The book argues that to achieve this, we need to see how causal processes apply in multiple frames or 'time scales' simultaneously, and we need to understand and address each and all of these frames in our work on language. This forces us to confront implications that are not always comfortable: for example, that "a language" is not a real thing but a convenient fiction, that language-internal and language-external processes have a lot in common, and that tree diagrams are poor conceptual tools for understanding the history of languages. By exploring avenues for clear solutions to these problems, this book suggests a conceptual framework for ultimately explaining, in causal terms, what languages are like and why they are like that.

Neural information processing with dynamical synapses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193837 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-383-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Experimental data have consistently revealed that the neuronal connection weight, which models the efficacy of the firing of a pre-synaptic neuron in modulating the state of a post-synaptic one, varies on short time scales, ranging from hundreds to thousands of milliseconds. This is called short-term plasticity (STP). Two types of STP, with opposite effects on the connection efficacy, have been observed in experiments. They are short-term depression (STD) and short-term facilitation (STF). Computational studies have explored the impact of STP on network dynamics, and found that STP can generate very rich intrinsic dynamical behaviors, including damped oscillations, state hopping with transient population spikes, traveling fronts and pulses, spiral waves, rotating bump states, robust self-organized critical activities and so on. These studies also strongly suggest that STP can play many important roles in neural computation. For instances, STD may provide a dynamic control mechanism that allows equal fractional changes on rapidly and slowly firing afferents to produce post-synaptic responses, realizing Weber's law; STD may provide a mechanism to close down network activity naturally, achieving iconic sensory memory; and STF may provide a mechanism for implementing work-memory not relying on persistent neural firing. From the computational point of view, the time scale of STP resides between fast neural signaling (in the order of milliseconds) and rapid learning (in the order of minutes or above), which is the time scale of many important temporal processes occurring in our daily lives, such as motion control and working memory. Thus, STP may serve as a substrate for neural systems manipulating temporal information on the relevant time scales. This Research Topic aims to present the recent progress in understanding the roles of STP in neural information processing. It includes, but no exclusively, the studies on investigating various computational roles of STP, the modeling studies on exploring new dynamical behaviors generated by STP, and the experimental works which help us to understand the functional roles of STP.

Flexible Views for View-based Model-driven Development

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Book Series: The Karlsruhe Series on Software Design and Quality / Ed. by Prof. Dr. Ralf Reussner ISSN: 18670067 ISBN: 9783731502760 Year: Volume: 15 Pages: XXI, 324 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000043437 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Modern software development faces the problem of fragmentation of information across heterogeneous artefacts in different modelling and programming languages. In this dissertation, the Vitruvius approach for view-based engineering is presented. Flexible views offer a compact definition of user-specific views on software systems, and can be defined the novel ModelJoin language. The process is supported by a change metamodel for metamodel evolution and change impact analysis.

Bidirektionale Abbildung zwischen Geschäftsprozessmodellen und IT-Kommunikationssystemen

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ISBN: 9783731502593 Year: Pages: VIII, 208 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000042938 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-11 12:46:28
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How can people with different knowledge and experience use process models in the digital communication and at the same time how can they receive system support through the described processes? This question is solved by a mutual transformation based on natural language which is illustrated with practical examples. Thus, more widespread workflows can be implemented by incorporating system boundaries that were previously hard to overcome.

Coordination Abilities in Volleyball

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ISBN: 9783110370317 9783110374247 Year: Pages: 80 DOI: 10.2478/9783110370317 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Sports Science --- Sports Medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2014-11-17 10:21:45
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The author presents a general view on sports training, its eriodization and the role of coordination in the initial stages of preparation in volleyball. He also deals with inter-gender differences in levels of such abilities, describing motor tests for the assessment of coordination potential and providing the reader with standards for the development of talented players. Based on the nature of volleyball, the author analyses key features of sports performance. Coordination abilities, especially in the period of puberty, play an important role in the creation of coordination basis – prerequisites for the development of physical fitness and acquisition of motor skills. Based on the results of his own research, as well as studies conducted by international sports scientists, he offers a model for the development of coordination abilities in volleyball. This method is recommended for coaches to improve their professional work in volleyball classes and schools, and in sports clubs. In the long-term, application of the proposed model should contribute to the improvement of players‘ performance in competition.

Physically based Impedance Modelling of Lithium-Ion Cells

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Book Series: Schriften des Instituts für Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie / Institut für Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik ISSN: 18681603 ISBN: 9783731502463 Year: Volume: 27 Pages: X, 234 S DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000042281 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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In this book, a new procedure to analyze lithium-ion cells is introduced. The cells are disassembled to analyze their components in experimental cell housings. Then, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, time domain measurements and the Distribution function of Relaxation Times are applied to obtain a deep understanding of the relevant loss processes. This procedure yields a notable surplus of information about the electrode contributions to the overall internal resistance of the cell.

Entwicklung eines Kosten und Nutzen umfassenden Modells zur Wahl des optimalen Behälters

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Book Series: Wissenschaftliche Berichte des Instituts für Fördertechnik und Logistiksysteme des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie ISSN: 01712772 ISBN: 9783731503248 Year: Volume: 84 Pages: X, 228 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000044973 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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In order to guarantee efficient material supply of production areas, it is crucial to choose the adequate tote carrier for every single part number. Choosing a tote carrier is subject to many parameters. Yet, surveys show that this choice is often based only on the size, ignoring other aspects. This means wrong choices and wasted capital. Thus, an approach to solve this issue, a new model and possible benefits are presented.

Precipitation statistics from regional climate model at resolutions relevant for soil erosion

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Book Series: Wissenschaftliche Berichte des Instituts für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie ISSN: 01795619 ISBN: 9783731502272 Year: Volume: 66 Pages: XX, 177 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000041271 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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A major source of uncertainty in regional climate model simulations arises from the convection parameterisation. Increasing spatial resolution to the so-called convection-permitting scale allows switching off most of the convective parameterisations. Several studies prove the benefits of this spatial scale, but none of them is based on climatological time-scale (i.e. 30 years) as this research.

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