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The Impact of Food Bioactives on Health: In Vitro and Ex Vivo Models

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783319157917 9783319161044 Year: Pages: 338 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-16104-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Pharmacy and materia medica --- Physiology --- Microbiology --- Manufactures --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-12 16:35:01
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'Infogest' (Improving Health Properties of Food by Sharing our Knowledge on the Digestive Process) is an EU COST action/network in the domain of Food and Agriculture. Infogest aims at building an open international network of institutes undertaking multidisciplinary basic research on food digestion gathering scientists from different origins (including food scientists, gut physiologists and nutritionists). The network gathers 70 partners from academia, corresponding to a total of 29 countries. The three main scientific goals are: Identify the beneficial food components released in the gut during digestion; Support the effect of beneficial food components on human health; Promote harmonization of currently used digestion models Infogest meetings highlighted the need for a publication that would provide researchers with an insight into the advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of respective in vitro and ex vivo assays to evaluate the effects of foods and food bioactives on health. Such assays are particularly important in situations where a large number of foods/bioactives need to be screened rapidly and in a cost effective manner in order to ultimately identify lead foods/bioactives that can be the subject of in vivo assays. The book is an asset to researchers wishing to study the health benefits of their foods and food bioactives of interest and highlights which in vitro/ex vivo assays are of greatest relevance to their goals, what sort of outputs/data can be generated and, as noted above, highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the various assays. It is also an important resource for undergraduate students in the ‘food and health’ arena.

Food cravings

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195176 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-517-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Food craving refers to an intense desire or urge to consume a specific food. In Western or Westernized societies, these craved foods usually have high palatability and are energy dense, that is, they have high sugar and/or fat content. Accordingly, the most often craved food is chocolate. Food craving is a multidimensional experience as it includes cognitive (e.g. thinking about food), emotional (e.g. desire to eat or changes in mood), behavioral (e.g. seeking and consuming food), and physiological (e.g. salivation) aspects. Experiences of food craving are common, that is, they do not reflect abnormal eating behavior per se. However, very intense and frequent food craving experiences are associated with obesity and eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. The aim of this research topic was to gather new contributions to a variety of aspects of food craving, which include its assessment, cognitive and emotional triggers, moderators, and correlates of food craving, and the relevance of food cravings in clinical issues, among others.

Energy metabolism and behavior in the corticotropin-releasing factor family of peptides

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195374 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-537-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Since Hans Selye's seminal work in the 1930s, there have been numerous advances with respect to our understanding of how the nervous and endocrine systems interact to help animals cope with stressors and how chronic stress may adversely impact health. Our modern understanding of stress essentially began in 1954 with the race to discover the hypothalamic releasing factor controlling ACTH secretion and mediating the endocrine response to stressors. Since the isolation of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in 1981, interest in CRF has focused not only on its hypophysiotropic function, but also its much broader role in coordinating many of the endocrine, behavioral and autonomic nervous system changes that occur during stress. The goal of this Research Topic is to solicit reviews and general research articles highlighting new research into stress and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the following areas: HPA axis interaction with energy regulating mechanisms during stress; and new studies on the role of CRF and urocortin and urocortins 2 and 3 in behavioral adaptation to stressors.

The Sustainability of Agro-Food and Natural Resource Systems in the Mediterranean Basin

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ISBN: 9783319163567 9783319163574 Year: Pages: 397 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-16357-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Pharmacy and materia medica --- Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Agriculture (General) --- Manufactures --- Business and Management --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-12 15:53:29
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This book is focused on the challenges to implement sustainability in diverse contexts such as agribusiness, natural resource systems and new technologies.The experiences made by the researchers of the School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Science (SAFE) of the University of Basilicata offer a wide and multidisciplinary approach to the identification and testing of different solutions tailored to the economic, social and environmental characteristics of the region and the surrounding areas.Basilicata’s productive system is mainly based on activities related to the agricultural sector and exploitation of natural resources but it has seen, in recent years, an industrial development driven by the discovery of oil fields. SAFE research took up the challenge posed by market competition to create value through the sustainable use of renewable and non-renewable resources of the territory. Moreover, due to its unique geographical position in the middle of the Mediterranean basin, Basilicata is an excellent “open sky” laboratory for testing sustainable solutions adaptable to other Mediterranean areas. This collection of multidisciplinary case studies and research experiences from SAFE researchers and their scientific partners is a stimulating contribution to the debate on the development of sustainable techniques, methods and applications for the Mediterranean regions.

Science and Technology Governance and Ethics: A Global Perspective from Europe, India and China

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783319146928 9783319146935 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 173 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-14693-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Chemical Engineering --- Business and Management --- Philosophy --- Manufactures
Added to DOAB on : 2015-07-24 16:44:14
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This book analyzes the possibilities for effective global governance of science in Europe, India and China. Authors from the three regions join forces to explore how ethical concerns over new technologies can be incorporated into global science and technology policies. The first chapter introduces the topic, offering a global perspective on embedding ethics in science and technology policy. Chapter Two compares the institutionalization of ethical debates in science, technology and innovation policy in three important regions: Europe, India and China. The third chapter explores public perceptions of science and technology in these same three regions. Chapter Four discusses public engagement in the governance of science and technology, and Chapter Five reviews science and technology governance and European values. The sixth chapter describes and analyzes values demonstrated in the constitution of the People’s Republic of China. Chapter Seven describes emerging evidence from India on the uses of science and technology for socio-economic development, and the quest for inclusive growth. In Chapter Eight, the authors propose a comparative framework for studying global ethics in science and technology. The following three chapters offer case studies and analysis of three emerging industries in India, China and Europe: new food technologies, nanotechnology and synthetic biology. Chapter 12 gathers all these threads for a comprehensive discussion on incorporating ethics into science and technology policy. The analysis is undertaken against the backdrop of different value systems and varying levels of public perception of risks and benefits. The book introduces a common analytical framework for the comparative discussion of ethics at the international level. The authors offer policy recommendations for effective collaboration among the three regions, to promote responsible governance in science and technology and a common analytical perspective in ethics.

Nutrition and prevention of Alzheimer's disease

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197194 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-719-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Altered metabolism is known to be associated with a higher incidence of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Diabetes type 2, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are considered risk factors for the development of dementias, including AD. These metabolic diseases may have a genetic predisposition, but most of them are caused by environmental factors and life-style. Most research has focused on the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) and sweetened beverages that induce obesity. Importantly, a HFD can also trigger oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation and cognitive decline. Less is known, however, about beneficial effects of diet on cognition, such as slowing the progression or preventing AD by ingesting whole fruits, vegetables, fish and oil. It is important to highlight the difference between vitamin/mineral supplements and whole food, as it appears that the former are clinically ineffective, while multiple ingredients in the latter act synergistically to improve cognition. As AD is a disease of slow progression, therapies should start several decades before clinical symptoms can be observed; one strategy can be the ingestion of healthy food in those subjects with one or more risk factors (genetic, environmental, life-style) already in their 40s, just when some brain metabolic disturbances start to develop. This dietary therapy can overcome the increased reactive oxygen species, protein deposition and synaptic failure, characteristic of AD. This research topic will cover a range of research articles, case studies, opinion and mini-reviews, all focused on describing the damaging effects of an industrial diet on cognition as well as on highlighting the beneficial effects of a healthy diet to prevent AD. We believe that we still have time to fight against the negative impact of our industrialized cultures, and adopt better eating habits, increase exercise and slow down our life style to prevent increasing dementia in the aging population. Also, all these topics has been a product of intensives investigations, with a great life hope, and we hope you all enjoy reading this e-book.

Keywords

Cognition --- Diet --- Vitamins --- Minerals --- Functional Food --- Dementia --- Aging --- biomarkers --- diagnosis

Forests and Food

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781783741953 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0085 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-22 11:01:50
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"As population estimates for 2050 reach over 9 billion, issues of food security and nutrition have been dominating academic and policy debates. A total of 805 million people are undernourished worldwide and malnutrition affects nearly every country on the planet. Despite impressive productivity increases, there is growing evidence that conventional agricultural strategies fall short of eliminating global hunger, as well as having long-term ecological consequences. Forests can play an important role in complementing agricultural production to address the Sustainable Development Goals on zero hunger. Forests and trees can be managed to provide better and more nutritionally-balanced diets, greater control over food inputs – particularly during lean seasons and periods of vulnerability (especially for marginalised groups) – and deliver ecosystem services for crop production. However forests are undergoing a rapid process of degradation, a complex process that governments are struggling to reverse. This volume provides important evidence and insights about the potential of forests to reducing global hunger and malnutrition, exploring the different roles of landscapes, and the governance approaches that are required for the equitable delivery of these benefits. Forests and Food is essential reading for researchers, students, NGOs and government departments responsible for agriculture, forestry, food security and poverty alleviation around the globe."

Keywords

agriculture --- ecology --- forests --- malnutrition --- hunger --- nutrition --- environment --- food

Mortuary Theory, Pottery and Social Complexity at Jebel Moya Cemetery, South-Central Sudan (Book chapter)

Book title: Hunter-gatherers and Early Food Producing Societies in Northeastern Africa

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9788360109434 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Poznań Archaeological Museum Grant: Wellcome Trust - 090865
Subject: Archaeology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:03
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archaeology - hunter-gatherers - early food producing societies - Northeastern Africa

Gram-positive phages: From isolation to application

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194933 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-493-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Phage biology is one of the most significant and fundamental aspects of biological research and is often used as a platform for model studies relating to more complex biological entities. For this reason, phage biology has enjoyed focused attention and significant advances have been made in the areas of phage genomics, transcriptomics and the development and characterisation of phage-resistance mechanisms. In recent years, considerable research has been performed to increase our understanding of the interactions of these phages with their hosts using genomic, biochemical and structural approaches. Such multidisciplinary approaches are core to developing a full understanding of the processes that govern phage infection, information that may be harnessed to develop anti-phage strategies that may be applied in food fermentations or applied in a positive sense in phage therapy applications. The co-evolutionary processes of these phages and their hosts have also been a considerable focus of research in recent years. Such data has promoted a deeper understanding of the means by which these phages attach to and infect their hosts and permitted the development of effective anti-phage strategies. Furthermore, the presence and activity of host-encoded phage-resistance systems that operate at various stages of the phage cycle and the potential for the application of such systems consolidates the value of research in this area. Conversely, phages and their components have been applied as therapeutic agents against a number of pathogens including, among others, Clostridium difficile, Lactococcus garviae, Mycobacterium spp., Listeria spp. and the possibilities and limitations of these systems will be explored in this topic. Additionally, phage therapeutic approaches have been applied to the prevention of development of food spoilage organisms in the brewing and beverage sectors and exhonorate the positive applications of phages in the industrial setting. This research topic is aimed to address the most current issues as well as the most recent advances in the research of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria covering areas such as phages in food fermentations, their impact in industry, phage ecology, genomics, evolution, structural analysis, phage-host interactions and the application of phages and components thereof as therapeutic agents against human and animal pathogens.

Les légumineuses pour des systèmes agricoles et alimentaires durables

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9782759223350 9782759223367 Year: Pages: 512 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-2335-0 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-13 11:21:04
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What do we know about inputs and potential of legumes in terms of the sustainability of agricultural and food systems? How can they be used to reduce the damage and maximise the benefits for the environment, agriculture and man? This reference work fuels the reflection on protein sources, nitrogen management in France and the relationship between legumes and sustainability.

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