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Chapter 7. Where is My State? Citizenship as a Factor in Yugoslavia’s Disintegration (Book chapter)

Book title: Nations and Citizens in Yugoslavia and the Post-Yugoslav States

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ISBN: 9781474221559 Year: Pages: 119-132 DOI: 10.5040/9781474221559.ch-008 Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 230239
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-30 11:02:17
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Chapter 7 shows that citizenship has to be counted as one of the crucial factors of Yugoslavia’s disintegration. The fundamental questions of citizenship related to the very definition of membership in a political community as well as the citizenship contract by which citizen exchanges his loyalty and duties for the rights and protection by his political community and its institutions (state) influenced critically the democratization process and Yugoslavia’s disintegration. At the crucial junction, in the context of imminent redefinition and possible collapse of federal Yugoslavia, between early 1990 and early 1992, citizens were asking themselves these basic questions: To what political community do I belong? or, to whom do I owe my loyalty? And, finally, who (what state?) guarantees, or promises to guarantee my rights – starting with human, civic and political rights, employment and property … – and, last but not least, security? The ethnonational conception of citizenship, the chapter argues, finally prevailed and fuelled conflicts over the redefinition of borders within which the ethnonational states were to be formed on the basis of absolute majorities of the core ethnonational groups.

Chapter 6. Partners into Competitors (Book chapter)

Book title: Nations and Citizens in Yugoslavia and the Post-Yugoslav States

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ISBN: 9781474221559 Year: Pages: 103-118 DOI: 10.5040/9781474221559.ch-007 Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 230239
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-30 11:02:19
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The clash between civic and ethnic solidarity as well as diverse understanding of whom should be loyal to whom and who belong together turned decisive at the moment when the multi-party majority democracy was introduced in the Yugoslav republics. Democratic participation and political belonging clashed in Yugoslavia at the junction of Yugoslav citizenship, republican citizenship and ethnic membership. Yugoslavia’s initial democratization eventually exacerbated inter-republic and inter-ethnic conflicts which had been meticulously nurtured and controlled by those nationalist elites who were attempting to, by multi-party elections, accede to power or stay in power. In this context, messages sent from the West underscoring the importance of state consolidation for successful democratization did not pressure regional actors to redefine or reform their ethnically heterogeneous states towards greater pluralism. They reinforced the idea that a truly functional state could only be an ethnically homogenized nation-state. In multinational socialist federations, it ended up promoting ethnically based political communities in opposition to the existing civic-legal political communities at the republican level as basis for democracy. This chapter argues that this ethnocentric vision of citizenship immediately challenged the existing social realities and institutional settings, put in question the borders between the republics, and opened the doors for violence and war. In his book States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control, Jeffrey Herbst describes the conflicts between the Zulu and early Dutch settlers over their opposing conceptions of sovereignty over territory and people. The Zulu believed that their political authority extended wherever people had pledged obedience to their king regardless of the territory where they happened to be. Also, ‘the Zulu believed that they could let the whites settle on land without giving up ownership’, whereas for the European whites, occupation over a certain territory also meant the ownership of that territory and control of the people that happened to be there (2000: 40–41). Extrapolated from its colonial context in which the Dutch colonizers wanted to absolutely dominate the colonized and take their land, the story could be interpreted as a clash between the conception of a political community based on ethnic, cultural, hereditary or maybe also declaratory loyalty and solidarity, regardless of existing political boundaries and polities in which the members of this community live, and a political community based on loyalty to the authorities governing a territory where one lives and, ideally, on solidarity with all those who happen to be on that territory under the same authorities. Modern states in reality often combine these two principles in a particular way: they often claim that their citizens or their ethnic kin abroad are bound to their polity and thus expect a loyalty and sometimes exercise an influence on diaspora members (who, in turn, are often interested in meddling in political affairs of the ‘old country’), but, internally, they always insist on undivided loyalty of the population they govern. Even further from its original South African situation, the clash between what we can generally call civic and ethnic solidarity, as well as different understandings of whom should be loyal to whom and who belonged together, turned crucial during the last years of Yugoslavia and decisive at the moment when the multi-party majority democracy was introduced in its republics.

Introduction (Book chapter)

Book title: Nations and Citizens in Yugoslavia and the Post-Yugoslav States

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ISBN: 9781474221559 Year: Pages: 1-22 DOI: 10.5040/9781474221559.ch-001 Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 230239
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-31 11:01:46
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The introductory chapter explains why Yugoslavia and the post-Yugoslav region, due to frequent constitutional changes, provides such an interesting and insightful example for studying modern politics and it shows why citizenship offers necessary lenses to understand political and social processes. It explains what do we mean by citizenship, in theory and practice, and why we introduce a heuristic concept of citizenship regime that encompasses legal and administrative side of inclusion and exclusion, social and political dynamic of membership and the influence of ideologies and everyday experiences of citizenship. The introduction shows the ‘citizenship gap’ in the literature covering the former Yugoslavia, the ideological conflicts over the concept and its practices and their inexplicable marginalization in the scholarship focused on the construction and, mostly, destruction of Yugoslavia. It also defines modern citizenship as a tool for various political and social purposes in this region over the last century. A study of transformations of citizenship represents thus an alternative political history of Yugoslavia and the post-Yugoslav states.

Chapter 5. The Bridges Over the Miljacka (Book chapter)

Book title: Nations and Citizens in Yugoslavia and the Post-Yugoslav States

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ISBN: 9781474221559 Year: Pages: 89-100 DOI: 10.5040/9781474221559.ch-006 Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 230239
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-31 11:01:54
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or 'conglomerate' – all occurring in Yugoslavia from mid-1960s at a sometimes vertiginous pace – seem to be interactive parts of the same puzzle. Nevertheless, immediately after the war it appeared that resurrected Yugoslavia and strong patriotism of the national-liberation struggle had given a new impetus to Yugoslavism – this time in a federalist form meant to dissociate the idea from the bitter experiences of pre-war unitarism. Although Yugoslavism itself went through curious re-definitions and had to compete with communist internationalism between 1945 and 1948, socialist nation-building Yugoslavism would be seen and promoted throughout the 1950s as something of uncontested worth. Having described earlier the birth and evolution of Yugoslavism between the mid-nineteenth century and the Second World War, we should recount here its last chapters.

Chapter 9. From Equal Citizens to Unequal Groups (Book chapter)

Book title: Nations and Citizens in Yugoslavia and the Post-Yugoslav States

Author:
ISBN: 9781474221559 Year: Pages: 151-172 DOI: 10.5040/9781474221559.ch-010 Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 230239
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-30 11:01:51
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ifferent citizens from other former Yugoslav republics who were permanent residents on their territory when the new citizenship regime came into effect. In their extreme manifestation, citizenship laws and practices have also been used as a subtle, but nonetheless powerful tool for ethnic cleansing. The deprivation of citizenship, and the subsequent loss of basic social and economic rights, has been quite effective in forcing a sizable number of individuals to leave their habitual places of residence and move either to ‘their’ kin states or abroad. The break-up of Yugoslavia and the other two multinational federations meant that millions literally went to bed as full-fledged citizens and woke up as individuals with questionable status.

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