Search results: Found 2

Listing 1 - 2 of 2
Sort by
Bridging the gap before and after birth: Methods and technologies to explore the functional neural development in humans

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196876 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-687-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Infant brain damage is a serious condition that affects millions of babies each year. The period from late gestation to the first year of life is the most critical one for the development of central and autonomous nervous systems. Medical conditions such as preterm birth may compromise brain function and the end result usually is that the baby may experience long-term neurological problems related to a wide range of psychological, physical and functional complications, with consequent life-long burdens for the individuals and their families, and a high socio-economic impact for the health care system and the whole of society. During the last years, several techniques have been employed to monitor the brain functional development in utero and after birth. As well, various analytical methods have been used to understand the functional maturation of the brain and the autonomous nervous system. However, in spite of the rapid improvement of diagnostic methods and procedures, there is still a widely recognized, severe shortage of clinically viable means for the high quality monitoring of the brain function in early life with a direct relevance to acute neurological illness and future neurocognitive outcomes. The studies collected in this e-book document the most recent advancements in monitoring systems, analytical methods and clinical diagnostic procedures that contribute to increase our knowledge of the functional development of the human brain and autonomous nervous system during pregnancy and after birth, with the ultimate goal of reducing fetal impairment and improving healthcare in the neonatal and infant period.

Heart Rate Variability: Clinical Applications and Interaction between HRV and Heart Rate

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196524 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-652-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Over the last decades, assessment of heart rate variability (HRV) has increased in various fields of research. HRV describes changes in heartbeat intervals, which are caused by autonomic neural regulation, i.e. by the interplay of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems. The most frequent application of HRV is connected to cardiological issues, most importantly to the monitoring of post-myocardial infarction patients and the prediction of sudden cardiac death. Analysis of HRV is also frequently applied in relation to diabetes, renal failure, neurological and psychiatric conditions, sleep disorders, psychological phenomena such as stress, as well as drug and addiction research including alcohol and smoking. The widespread application of HRV measurements is based on the fact that they are noninvasive, easy to perform, and in general reproducible – if carried out under standardized conditions. However, the amount of parameters to be analysed is still rising. Well-established time domain and frequency domain parameters are discussed controversially when it comes to their physiological interpretation and their psychometric properties like reliability and validity, and the sensitivity to cardiovascular properties of the variety of parameters seems to be a topic for further research. Recently introduced parameters like pNNxx and new dynamic methods such as approximate entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis offer new potentials and warrant standardization. However, HRV is significantly associated with average heart rate (HR) and one can conclude that HRV actually provides information on two quantities, i.e. on HR and its variability. It is hard to determine which of these two plays a principal role in the clinical value of HRV. The association between HRV and HR is not only a physiological phenomenon but also a mathematical one which is due to non-linear (mathematical) relationship between RR interval and HR. If one normalizes HRV to its average RR interval, one may get ‘pure’ variability free from the mathematical bias. Recently, a new modification method of the association between HRV and HR has been developed which enables us to completely remove the HRV dependence on HR (even the physiological one), or conversely enhance this dependence. Such an approach allows us to explore the HR contribution to the clinical significance of HRV, i.e. whether HR or its variability plays a main role in the HRV clinical value. This Research Topic covers recent advances in the application of HRV, methodological issues, basic underlying mechanisms as well as all aspects of the interaction between HRV and HR.

Listing 1 - 2 of 2
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (2)


License

CC by (2)


Language

english (2)


Year
From To Submit

2015 (2)